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Gallic Empire, Victorinus, summer to November 268 - mid 271 A.D.
Victorinus succeeded Marius to the throne of the Gallic Empire. During his reign, Spain rejoined the rest of the Roman Empire. His officers, offended by his relentless pursuit of married women including their wives, murdered him.
Plautilla, Augusta 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Wife of Caracalla
Sulla in a dream first saw Venus with the weapons of Mars as Venus Victrix and made her his personal patroness. In the night before the battle of Pharsalus 48 B.C. Pompey dreamed of Venus Victrix - seemingly a lucky sign. Caesar sacrificed to Venus Genetrix, but issued as watchword 'Venus Victrix', and defeated Pompey!SL89803. Silver denarius, RIC IV 369 (S); RSC III 25; BMCRE V p. 238, 429; Hunter III 9; SRCV II 7074, NGC AU, strike 5/5, surface 4/5 (4094543-017), weight 2.94 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 202 - 205 A.D.; obverse PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair in horizontal ridges, looped plait at back of neck; reverse VENVS VICTRIX (victorious Venus), Venus standing left, bare to waist, apple in right hand, palm frond in left hand, resting left elbow on shield, Cupid at her feet on left holding crested helmet; from the Martineit Collection of Ancient and World Coins; SOLD
From the Braithwell Hoard found 1 Sep 2002 by Mr. P. Leech at the village of Braithwell, South Yorkshire. RA52926. Billon antoninianus, Cunetio 2550 (5 examples); Mairat 287; RIC V-2 78 var. (Virtus right); Braithwell Report 158 (1 example in the hoard), aEF, weight 3.610 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 4th emission, c. early 271 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), soldier (Virtus?) standing left, right hand on grounded shield, spear vertical behind in left; very rare; SOLD
In Roman mythology, Aequitas was the minor goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Aequitas was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor (Aequitas Augusti). The scales, a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The cornucopia signifies the prosperity which results from Aequitas and Aequitas Augusti.RA77907. Billon antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 1c, RIC V 41, Elmer 702, Cohen VI 8, SRCV III 11166, Hunter - (p. xcviii), gVF, nice for the issue, dark patina, excellent portrait, some die wear, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.658 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 269 A.D.; obverse IMP C PI VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren, ex CNG/Seaby Coins; SOLD
In 270, the Empire suffered an economic crisis due to usurpations, partition of the empire, invasions, and sackings of the countryside and cities. Agricultural and industrial productions were significantly decreased, and mines went unused. A monetary crisis ensued. Inflation was up to 1,000% in some areas of the empire.RA15289. Billon antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 14b, RIC V-2 118, Cohen VI 79, Elmer 682, Mairat 261, SRCV III 11175, Choice aEF, weight 3.445 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 3rd emission, 3rd phase, early-mid 270 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse long scepter in left hand, V in left field, star in right field; SOLD
Gallic Empire, Victorinus, Summer to November 268 - mid 271 A.D., Barbarous Imitative
RA56574. Billon antoninianus, cf. RIC V-2 114 (official Cologne mint, 268 - 270 A.D.), VF, weight 2.069 g, maximum diameter 16.6 mm, die axis 225o, unofficial mint, obverse [VI]CTORINVS, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse IN[VICTVS], Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, star left; nice patina, attractive barbarous radiate; SOLD
First emission still using the portrait of Marius.RA38381. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 41, EF, edge broken, weight 3.724 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, obverse IMP C PI VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left; nice portrait and patina; rare; SOLD
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.RA58980. Billon antoninianus, Cunetio hoard 2543, Chalfont hoard 1006, Zschucke 207, RIC V 118 var. (no palm), Elmer 682 var. (same), VF, weight 2.860 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, c. 269 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing half left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, V in left field, star over branch in right field; SOLD
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.RA08942. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 67, Schulzki AGK 21c, Mairat 321, Elmer 732, Zschucke 258, SRCV III 11179, gVF, weight 3.18 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 2nd emission, late 269 - mid 270 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing right, feeding snake held in her arms; SOLD
Gallic Empire, Victorinus, Summer to November 268 - mid 271 A.D.
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RA85622. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 61, Cunetio Hoard 2577, Mairat 342, Elmer 743, Schulzki AGK19, Hunter IV 29, SRCV III 11178, Cohen VI 101, aEF, fantastic portrait, toned copper surfaces, areas of slight porosity, tight flan, weight 2.624 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 5th emission, 271 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PROVIDENTIA AVG (the foresight of the Emperor), Providentia standing slightly left, rod in right hand over globe at feet, cornucopia in left hand; ex CGB Numismatique Paris (fall 2006); SOLD
Victoria or Nike, the Winged Goddess of Victory, personifies victory. She was described variously in different myths as the daughter of the Titan Pallas and the goddess Styx, and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal). Nike and her siblings were close companions of Zeus. According to classical (later) myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titan War. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer, a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame, symbolized by a wreath of laurel leaves.RA04066. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 75, Choice VF+, weight 2.85 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, "I" mint, 269 - 271 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AVG (the victory of the Emperor), Victory walking left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left; from the Aiello Collection; SOLD
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