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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Recovery of the Empire| ▸ |Probus||View Options:  |  |  |   

Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Probus was the son of a soldier and was himself a simple soldier at the beginning of his career. By the reign of Aurelian, he was one of the Empire's foremost generals. After the death of Tacitus, he was declared emperor and after the murder of Florian, he was left undisputed master of the Roman world. He embarked on a series of economic revival programs bringing great peace and prosperity to the empire. He was murdered by mutinous soldiers, enraged at being employed on public building projects.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Serdica struck many similar types with the reverse legends RESITVT ORBIS and RESTITVTOR ORBIS, combined with various busts, obverse legends, officina, and control marks. This coin differs from all the varieties listed in RIC.

KA in the exergue, is the Greek numeral 21, a mark of value, indicating 21 parts bronze to one part silver (approximately 4.5% silver). Γ, is the Greek numeral 3, indicating the coin was struck by the third officina (mint workshop).
RA92325. Silvered antoninianus, Pink VI-1, p. 44-45/1; RIC V-2 856 var. (RESTITVTOR ORBIS); Cohen VI 508 var. (also draped); Hunter IV -; SRCV III -, aEF, much silvering, well centered, scratches, corrosion, some pitting, edge split, weight 3.251 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3nd officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, c. 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORBIS (to the restorer of the world), female (on left) standing right, presenting wreath to emperor, emperor (on right) standing left, extending right hand, spear in left hand, star low center, KA•Γ in exergue; not in RIC; $90.00 (€73.80)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The ruins of Antioch on the Orontes lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch is called "the cradle of Christianity," for the pivotal early role it played in the emergence of the faith. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Once a great metropolis of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east.6th Century Antioch
RA93339. Billon antoninianus, Hunter V 344 (also 3rd officina); RIC V-2 922; Cohen VI 99; Pink p. 40, emission 2; SRCV III 11961, gVF, much silvering remains, full legends, unusually crude portrait, flow lines, rev. die wear, weight 3.300 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), emperor standing right, short scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe presenting wreath from Jupiter, Jupiter standing left, holding long scepter vertical behind in left hand, Γ• in center, XXI in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $90.00 (€73.80)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 280, Julius Saturninus, the governor of Syria, was made emperor by his troops. Probus besiege him at Apamea, where he was captured and executed.
RL94821. Billon antoninianus, Hunter V 327 (also 2nd officina); RIC V-2 922; Cohen VI 99; Pink p. 40, emission 2; SRCV III 11961, Choice VF, nice portrait, centered, highlighting earthen deposits, rev. die wear, weight 4.067 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Probus on left, standing right, in military garb, scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe presenting wreath from Jupiter with right hand, Jupiter on right, standing left, nude but for cloak, long scepter vertical in left hand, B in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $80.00 (€65.60)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 274, Rome greeted Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accorded him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which was graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II. Aurelian's conquests of the Palmyran Empire and the Gallic Empire reunited the Roman Empire.
RL94806. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 337 (also 7th officina); RIC V-2 925; Cohen VI 509; Pink VI, 2nd emission, p. 40; SRCV III 12021, VF, well centered, green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, porous, marks, weight 3.783 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, 7th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORBIS (to the restorer of the world), woman presenting wreath to Emperor standing left holding globe and scepter, Z in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 274, Rome greeted Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accorded him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which was graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II. Aurelian's conquests of the Palmyran Empire and the Gallic Empire reunited the Roman Empire.
RL94807. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 337 (also 7th officina); RIC V-2 925; Cohen VI 509; Pink VI, 2nd emission, p. 40; SRCV III 12021, VF, centered on a broad flan, dark patina, highlighting red earthen deposits, reverse die wear, weight 3.093 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 150o, 7th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORBIS (to the restorer of the world), woman presenting wreath to Emperor standing left holding globe and scepter, Z in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 274, Rome greeted Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accorded him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which was graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II. Aurelian's conquests of the Palmyran Empire and the Gallic Empire reunited the Roman Empire.
RL94810. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 925; Cohen VI 509; Pink VI, 2nd emission, p. 40; SRCV III 12021; cf. Hunter IV 340 (...P F AVG), gF, dark green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, broad flan, weight 3.810 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORBIS (to the restorer of the world), woman presenting wreath to Emperor standing left holding globe and scepter, B in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The Roman imperial mint at Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) was only open from 270 to about 286 A.D.
RL94813. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 350 (same rev. legend break), RIC V-2 927, Cohen VI 91, SRCV III -, gF, dark patina, earthen deposits, weight 4537 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, 280 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Emperor, on left, standing right, holding eagle tipped scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter, Jupiter standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, long scepter vertical in left hand, crescent with horns up low center, KA in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce mint; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The Roman's believed Jupiter granted protection and success to his favorites, who tended to be people in positions of authority similar to his own.
RL94817. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 351 (same reverse legend breaks), RIC V-2 928, Cohen VI 87, SRCV III -, Choice VF, well centered, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 3.754 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 0o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, c. 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Probus standing right, eagle-tipped scepter in left, with right receiving globe from Jupiter, standing left, long scepter in left hand, crescent with horns up low center, KA in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarcer mint; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The Roman's believed Jupiter granted protection and success to his favorites, who tended to be people in positions of authority similar to his own.
RL94820. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 350 (same rev. legend break), RIC V-2 928, Cohen VI 87, SRCV III -, VF, well centered, dark patina, earthen encrustation, reverse die wear, weight 3.674 g, maximum diameter 23.04 mm, die axis 0o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, 276 - 282 BC; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Emperor, on left, standing right, holding eagle tipped scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter, Jupiter standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, long scepter vertical in left hand, crescent with horns up lower center, KA in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarcer mint; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 280, Julius Saturninus, the governor of Syria, was made emperor by his troops. Probus besiege him at Apamea, where he was captured and executed.
RL94827. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 922; Cohen VI 99; Pink p. 40, emission 2; SRCV III 11961; Hunter V 344 var. (3rd officina), gF, dark patina, well centered, weight 3.703 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Probus on left, standing right, in military garb, scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter with right hand, Jupiter on right, standing left, nude but for cloak, long scepter vertical in left hand, B• in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 




  



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OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

BONOIMPCPROBOAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOINVICTAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOINVICTOAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOPAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOPFAVG
BONOIMPCMAVRPROBVSAVG
BONOIMPCMAVRPROBOINVICTAVG
BONOIMPMAVRPROBOINVICAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOPFINVICTAVG
BONOIMPPROBOAVG
BONOIMPPROBOINVICTAVG
BONOETINVICTOPROBOPAVG
BONOETINVICTOPROBOPFAVG
DEOETDOMINOPROBOINVICTOAVG
IMPCMARPROBVSAVG
IMPCMAVRELPROBVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBOAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCONSIII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCONSIIII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCONSV
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCOSII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCOSIII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSINVAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSINVICTAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPIVSAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPIVSFAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPIFEAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFINVICTAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFINVICTVSAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFINVICTOAVG
IMPCMPROBVSINVICTAVG
IMPCMPROBVSINVICTPAVG
IMPCPROBVSAVG
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSIII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSIIII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSV
IMPCPROBVSAVGCOS
IMPCPROBVSAVGCOSII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCOSIII
IMPCPROBVSCONSII
IMPCPROBVSCONSIII
IMPCPROBVSINVAVG
IMPCPROBVSINVICTVSAVG
IMPCPROBVSINVICTVSPAVG
IMPCPROBVSPAVG
IMPCPROBVSPFAVG
IMPCPROBVSPFAVGCONSIII
IMPCPROBVSPFAVGCONSIIII
IMPCPROBVSPIVSFAVG
IMPDEOETDOMINOPROBOAVG
IMPDEOETDOMINOPROBOINVICTOAVG
IMPDEOETDOMINOPROBOPFAVG
IMPMAVRPROBOPFINVICTAVG
IMPMAVRPROBVSAVG
IMPMAVRPROBVSPAVG
IMPMAVRPROBVSPFAVG
IMPPROBOINVICTOAVG
IMPPROBVSAVG
IMPPROBVSAVGCONSIII
IMPPROBVSINVAVG
IMPPROBVSINVICTVSAVG
IMPPROBVSPAVG
IMPPROBVSPFAVG
IMPPROBVSPIVSFAVG
PERPETVOIMPCMAVRPROBOAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOINVICTAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOPAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOPFAVG
PERPETVOIMPPROBOAVG
PERPETVOIMPPROBOPAVG
PERPETVOIMPPROBOINVICTPAVG
PROBVSAVG
PROBVSPAVG
PROBVSPFAVG
SOLCOMESPROBIAVG
SOLCOMISPROBIAVG
VIRTVSPROBIAVG
VIRTVSPROBIINVICTIAVG


REFERENCES|

Alföldi, A. Siscia. Heft V: Verzeichnis der Antoniniane des Kaisers Probus. (Budapest, 1939).
Bastien, P. Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon. De la réouverture de l'atelier par Aurélien à la mort de Carin (fin 274 - mi-285). (Wetteren, 1976).
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Calicó, E. The Roman Avrei, Vol. II: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus. (Paris, 1886).
Gnecchi, F. I Medaglioni Romani. (Milan, 1912).
Guillemain, J. Ripostiglio della Venèra, Nuovo Catalogo Illustrato, Vol. III/1: La monetazione di Probo a Roma (276-282 d.C.). (Verona, 2009).
Gysen, P. "Nouvelles données concernant l'atelier de Serdica sous le règne de Probus" in RBN CXLVI (2000).
King, C. Roman Quinarii from the Republic to Diocletian and the Tetrarchy. (Oxford, 2007).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Pink, K. "Der Aufbau der Römischen münzprägung in der Kaiserzeit: VI/1. Probus" in Numismatische Zeitschrift 73 (1949).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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