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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Roman Republic| ▸ |before 211 B.C.||View Options:  |  |  | 

Roman Republic Before 211 B.C. - Pre-Denarius Coinage
Roman Republic and Central Italy, Cast Aes Rude, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C., 20 Fragments

|before| |211| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic| |and| |Central| |Italy,| |Cast| |Aes| |Rude,| |c.| |5th| |-| |4th| |Century| |B.C.,| |20| |Fragments||Lot|
In Italy, as with other nations, early trade used a system of barter. Aes rude (Latin: "rough bronze"), used perhaps as early as the early 8th century B.C., was the earliest metal proto-currency in central Italy. In the 5th century B.C., bronze replaced cattle as the primary measure of value in trade. Aes rude are rough lumpy bronze ingots with no marks or design, some are flat and oblong, others are square, while many are irregular and shapeless. The metal is mostly copper with roughly 5% tin. Weight varies considerably with some exceeding twelve pounds and others under an ounce. Many smaller examples are fragments of broken larger specimens. A balance was necessary to measure value for commercial transactions.
LT96143. Bronze Lot, Lot of 20 aes rude fragments, cf. BMCRR I p. 1, Haeberlin pl. 1, Vecchi ICC pl. 1, Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2, SRCV I 505, 13.908g - 65.836g, no tags or flips, actual pieces in the photograph, as-is, no returns; $500.00 SALE PRICE $400.00
 


Roman Republic and Central Italy, Cast Aes Rude, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C., 8 Fragments

|before| |211| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic| |and| |Central| |Italy,| |Cast| |Aes| |Rude,| |c.| |5th| |-| |4th| |Century| |B.C.,| |8| |Fragments||Lot|
In Italy, as with other nations, early trade used a system of barter. Aes rude (Latin: "rough bronze"), used perhaps as early as the early 8th century B.C., was the earliest metal proto-currency in central Italy. In the 5th century B.C., bronze replaced cattle as the primary measure of value in trade. Aes rude are rough lumpy bronze ingots with no marks or design, some are flat and oblong, others are square, while many are irregular and shapeless. The metal is mostly copper with roughly 5% tin. Weight varies considerably with some exceeding twelve pounds and others under an ounce. Many smaller examples are fragments of broken larger specimens. A balance was necessary to measure value for commercial transactions.
LT96230. Bronze Lot, Lot of 8 aes rude fragments, cf. BMCRR I p. 1, Haeberlin pl. 1, Vecchi ICC pl. 1, Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2, SRCV I 505, weight 28.533g - 62.227g, no tags or flips, actual pieces in the photograph, as-is, no returns; $250.00 SALE PRICE $225.00
 


Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Cast Aes Formatum, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C., Bipod Shell

|Italy|, |Osco-Latin,| |Central| |Italy,| |Cast| |Aes| |Formatum,| |Late| |4th| |-| |Early| |3rd| |Century| |B.C.,| |Bipod| |Shell||Aes| |Formatum|
 
GA96779. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. Fallai IAPN 8, pl. 6, 2-2c; Alvarez-Burgos P28; Thurlow-Vecchi -, Fair, weight 13.617 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; cast from a bipod shell; $90.00 SALE PRICE $72.00
 







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REFERENCES|

Babelon, E. Monnaies de la Republique Romaine. (Paris, 1885).
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979
Bertol, A. & K Farac. "Aes rude and aes formatum - a new typology" in VAMZ, 3. s., XLV (2012).
Carson, R. Principal Coins of the Romans, Vol. I: The Republic, c. 290-31 BC. (London, 1978).
Crawford, M. "Paestum and Rome: The form and function of a subsidiary coinage" in La monetazione di bronzo do Poseidonia-Paestum. Annali 18-19 Supp. (Naples, 1971).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Haeberlin, E. Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens. (Frankfurt, 1910).
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of Sicily (including Lipara), Civic, Royal, Siculo-Punic, and Romano-Sicilian Issues, Sixth to First Centuries BC. HGC 2. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Berger, F. Die Münzen der Römischen Republik im Kestner-Museum Hannover. (Hannover, 1989).
McCabe, A. "The Anonymous Struck Bronze Coinage of the Roman Republic: A Provisional Arrangement" in Essays Russo.
Russo, R. The RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. (Zurich, 2013).
Rutter, N.ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Stannard, C. The local coinages of Central Italy in the late Roman Republic: provisional catalogue, Oct 2007.
Sydenham, E. Aes Grave, a Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. (London, 1926).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).
Thurlow, B. & I. Vecchi. Italian Cast Coinage. (Dorchester, 1979).
Vecchi, I. Italian Cast Coinage. (London, 2013).


Early Roman Republic Pre-Coinage and Coin Types

Bronze Pre-Coinage and Cast Coin Types
Aes Rude, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C.
Cast Aes Formatum, c. 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Cast Aes Signatum, c. 289 - 241 B.C.
Cast Aes Grave Coinage, c. 280 - 211 B.C.
- Varied Obverse and Reverse Types, c. 280 - 225 B.C.
- Standardized Types With Prow Reverse, c. 225 - 211 B.C.

Pre-Reform Stuck Coin Types
Pre-Reform Struck Gold Coinage, c. 217 - 216 B.C.
Pre-Denarius Struck Silver Coinage, c. 280 - 211 B.C.
Struck Bronze Litra Coinage, c. 273 - 225 B.C.
Pre-Reform Struck Bronze Coinage, c. 217 - 211 B.C.

Catalog current as of Sunday, November 28, 2021.
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