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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Imperators| ▸ |Julius Caesar||View Options:  |  |  | 

Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.

Gaius Julius Caesar is one of the most famous men in history. At the end of his brilliant military and political career, he had gained control of the Roman state. His puppet senate heaped more and more honors upon him. In February 44 B.C. the senate named him dictator for life. Many senators, however, feared that he wished to become king, ending the Republic. On the 15th of March 44 B.C., 63 senators attacked him with knives they had hidden in the folds of their togas. This most famous of assassinations plunged the Roman Republic into 17 years of civil war, after which it would re-emerge as the Roman Empire.

Lampsacus (as Colonia Gemella Iulia Lampsacus), Mysia, c. 45 - 35 B.C.

|Lampsakos|, |Lampsacus| |(as| |Colonia| |Gemella| |Iulia| |Lampsacus),| |Mysia,| |c.| |45| |-| |35| |B.C.||as|
M. Grant (Grant FITA, p. 246) first and convincingly attributed this type to Lampsacus. P. Brunt (Italian Manpower, p. 600) argues convincingly that the colony at Lampsakos was founded by Julius Caesar about 45 B.C. (a twin colony to another at Parium) and disappeared after its occupation by Sextus Pompey in 35 B.C. The reverse legend identifies Q. Lucretius and L. Pontius as the colony's first duoviri. This type was likely struck at the time the colony was founded or very soon after.
RP96982. Bronze as, RPC Online I 2273 (7 spec.); Grant FITA p. 246, 5; Robinson NC 1921 p. 7, 6 (Parion); Imhoof MG p. 252, 126 (Parion), VF, green patina, earthen encrustation, inscriptions not fully struck, weight 3.550 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 0o, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, dictatorship of Julius Caesar, c. 45 - 44 B.C.; obverse C G I L (Colonia Gemella Julia Lampsakos), bearded head of Janus, C G I L (Colonia Gemella Julia Lampsakos) divided across field, countermark: monogram; reverse Q LVCRET L PONTI-O IIVIR COL DED PR (Q. Lucretius [and] L. Pontius, duoviri colonia deducta primis), prow of war galley right; Coin Archives records only four sales of this type (two with this countermark) in the last two decades; very rare; $500.00 (€410.00)
 


|Julius| |Caesar|, |Julius| |Caesar,| |Imperator| |and| |Dictator,| |October| |49| |-| |15| |March| |44| |B.C.||aureus|
Certificate of Authenticity issued by David R. Sear.
SH15307. Gold aureus, Crawford 466/1, Sydenham 1017, BMCRR 4050, Cohen 2, Julia 2, SRCV I 1395, gVF, full circle centering on a very broad flan, excellent portrait style for this type, weight 7.806 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, Aulus Hirtius, Praetor, early 46 B.C.; obverse C CAESAR COS TER, veiled head of Vesta right; reverse A HIRTIVS PR, emblems of the pontificate and augurship - jug between lituus to left, and axe to right; SOLD


|Julius| |Caesar|, |Julius| |Caesar,| |Imperator| |and| |Dictator,| |October| |49| |-| |15| |March| |44| |B.C.||denarius|
"The coin that killed Caesar." The obverse legend declares Caesar is "Dictator for Life" and he wears the veil, symbolic of his life-term position as Pontifex Maximus. Caesar would be both the dictator and high priest of Rome for the remainder of his life, but his life would end only a few weeks after this coin was struck. For Caesar to put his image on coins and in effect declare himself king was too much for Brutus and his republican allies. On the Ides of March (15 March) 44 B.C. Caesar was stabbed to death by as many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theater of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, Caesar passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied, "Aye, Caesar, but not gone." This meeting is famously dramatized in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."

Minted for Caesar's planned Parthian war, this type was often carelessly struck indicating the mint was working under great pressure.
SH45450. Silver denarius, Crawford 480/13, Sydenham 1074, Sear CRI 107d, RSC I Julius Caesar 39, BMCRR I Rome 4173, SRCV I 1414, Vagi 56, Choice gVF, magnificent portrait, weight 3.660 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, moneyer P Sepullius Macer, Feb - Mar 44 B.C.; obverse CAESAR DICT PERPETVO, veiled and wreathed head of Caesar right; reverse P SEPVLLIVS MACER, Venus standing left, Victory in extended right hand, long scepter in left hand, shield at feet right; SOLD







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OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

CAESARDICTINPERPETVO
CAESARDICTPERPETVO
CAESARDICTQVART
CAESARIMP
CAESARIMPER
CAESDICQVAR
CCAESARCOSTER
CCAESDICTER


REFERENCES|

Babelon, E. Monnaies de la Republique Romaine. (Paris, 1885).
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Carson, R. Principal Coins of the Romans, Vol. I: The Republic, c. 290-31 BC. (London, 1978).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Russo, R. The RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. (Zurich, 2013).
Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Seaby, H.A., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998).
Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).

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