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Procopius was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and a general under Julian II. Some contemporary historians of Procopius claim that Julian II had meant for the general to succeed him instead of Jovian. Whether true or not, Jovian gained the throne and Procopius retired. After Jovian died, the next emperors, Valentinian and Valens, had Procopius arrested. Procopius escaped and, on 28 September 365, bribed two legions passing by Constantinople, proclaimed himself emperor, and took control of Thrace and Bithynia. In April 366, Valens defeated the troops of Procopius in the Battle of Thyatira in Phrygia, ending his revolt. Procopius fled the battlefield but was captured at Nacoleia and executed on 27 May 366.RL84226. Bronze centenionalis, see CNG e-auction 268, lot 413 (no object left); cf. RIC IXConstantinopolis 17(a), LRBC II 2081, SRCV V 19883, Cohen VIII 8 (all bust left), aVF, dark green patina with earthen deposits, tight flan, edge cracks, light scratches, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.544 g, maximum diameter 16.0 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed and cuirassedbust right, from the front; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP (happy times restored), Procopius standing slightly left, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, uncertain object at feet on left, CONSE in exergue; apparently unpublished, extremely rare with bust right; $110.00 (Ä93.50)
Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.
Procopius was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and general under Julian II. On 28 Sep 365, during the rule of Valentinian and Valens, he bribed two legions passing by Constantinople and proclaimed himself emperor. In April 366, Valens defeated Procopius in the Battle of Thyatira, ending his revolt. Procopius fled, but was later captured and executed.RL74567. Bronze centenionalis, LRBC II 2082, RIC IXConstantinopolis 17(a)6 (R2), Cohen VIII 8, SRCV V 19883, aVF, green patina, typical tight flan, light marks, scratches and corrosion, weight 3.116 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 345o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - Apr 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed draped and cuirassedbust left; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP (happy times restored), Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, uncertain object at feet, Chi-Rho in upper right field, CONSAē in exergue; rare; $90.00 (Ä76.50)
Valentinian II, 17 November 375 - 15 May 392 A.D.
In 380, Rome's enemies the Germans, Sarmatians and Huns were taken into Imperial service; barbarian leaders began to play an increasingly active role in the Roman Empire.RL74501. Bronze half centenionalis, RIC IXThessalonica 62(a)1 (S), LRBC II 1864, SRCV V 20340, Cohen VIII 12 corr., VF, interesting turrets, tight and slightly irregular flan, weight 0.925 g, maximum diameter 14.2 mm, die axis 345o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, c. 384 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseGLORIA REIPVBLICE (glory of the Republic), campgate with two turrets, A left, TES in exergue; $80.00 (Ä68.00)
Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.RL86910. Bronze half centenionalis, RIC IX 86(c), LRBC II 2185, DOCLR 92 ff., SRCV V 20847, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, VF, tight flan, reverselegend not fully struck, weight 0.681 g, maximum diameter 12.8 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinople mint, 28 Aug 388 - 15 May 392 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseSALVS REIPVBLICAE (health of the Republic), Victory walking left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, CONS[...] in exergue; $24.00 (Ä20.40)
Valentinian II, 17 November 375 - 15 May 392 A.D.
Valentinian II was declared Augustus shortly after his father's death. His influence steadily waned and after Gratian's death, he controlled only Italy. Although he and Theodosius II quickly repulsed the invasion of Magnus Maximus, his power waned again. He was strangled, probably at the orders of general Arbogastes.RL86236. Bronze maiorina, RIC IXNicomedia 44(a)3-4 (S), LRBC II 2400, SRCV 20284, Cohen VIII 57, aVF, tight flan cutting off mintmark, weight 3.780 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 0o, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseVIRTVS EXERCITI (courage of the army), emperor standing right, left foot on kneeling captive, vexillum in right hand, globe in left hand, palm frond in left field, SMNA or SMNB in exergue (off flan); scarce; $22.00 (Ä18.70)
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