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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Constantinian Era ▸ Julian IIView Options:  |  |  |   

Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D.


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Certificate of Authenticity issued by David R. Sear.
SH21937. Gold solidus, RIC VIII Antioch 197, Cohen VIII 79 var., SRCV 4066 var., Choice EF, weight 4.465 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 362 - 363 A.D.; obverse FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITVS ROMANORVM (the power of the Roman army), Virtus (Julian) advancing right, head left, dragging captive with right and holding trophy across shoulder, ANTA in exergue; minor abrasion on emperor's neck and a couple light scratches, ex Freeman & Sear; very rare; SOLD


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Although Eastern Solidi of Julian II seem fairly common, the Western issues are quite scarce and this type from Arles is very rare. Zeus' eagle in the right field has been interpreted to indicate pagan influence at the Arelatum mint.
SH86350. Gold solidus, RIC VIII Arles 303 (R2), Depeyrot EMA 145/1, Cohen VIII 75, SRCV V 19097, Hunter V -, aVF, clipped flan, graffiti obverse right field, bumps and scratches, die break reverse lower left, weight 3.202 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Constantia-Arelatum (Arles, France) mint, 360 - 363 A.D.; obverse FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse VIRTVS EXERC GALL (the courage of the Roman army in Gaul), soldier (Julian?) advancing right, helmeted and wearing military garb, head left, right hand on the head of a bound captive on one knee, trophy of arms in left hand across left shoulder; eagle right in right field, looking left, wreath in beak; KONSTAN (Constantia, TAN ligate) in exergue; ex iNumis auction 20 May 2010 (€1740 including fees); very rare; SOLD


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Sirmium (modern Sremska, Serbia) was originally inhabited by Illyrians and Celts. Conquered by the Romans in the 1st century B.C., it became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. Under Diocletian's Tetrarchy, Sirmium was made one of the four capitals of the Empire. From 318 to 379, which includes the time when this coin was struck, Sirmium was the capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum.
SH21644. Silvered double maiorina, RIC VIII Sirmium 106, LRBC II 1621, SRCV V 19153, Cohen VIII 38, superb EF, weight 9.246 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) mint, summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB (security of the Republic), bull standing right, two stars above horns, *ASIRM and wreath in exergue; SOLD


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The common belief which identifies the bull with the Apis bull is probably wrong. An interesting passage from Dio Chrysostom compares a good ruler to a bull. Also, Julian was most likely born in May, in the sign of Taurus. The stars are probably the two important star clusters in Taurus, Pleiades and Hyades. Taurus or Apis, this bull is pagan and this coin was the last pagan coin type issued by the Empire.
SH32850. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Constantinople 164, EF, weight 8.601 g, maximum diameter 28.7 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 3 Nov 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB• (security of the Republic), bull right, two stars above, CONSP[...] in exergue; SOLD


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The common belief which identifies the bull with the Apis bull is probably wrong. An interesting passage from Dio Chrysostom compares a good ruler to a bull. Also, Julian was most likely born in May, in the sign of Taurus. The stars are probably the two important star clusters in Taurus, Pleiades and Hyades. Taurus or Apis, this bull is pagan and this coin was the last pagan coin type issued by the Empire.
SH03587. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Constantinople 163, superb about uncirculated, weight 8.65 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 361 - 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB (security of the Republic), Apis bull right, two stars above horns, branch CONSPB branch in exergue; SOLD


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Aquileia was founded by the Romans as a Latin colony in 181 B.C. in the north-eastern corner of the plain of the Po at the northern end of the Adriatic. It grew to become one of the largest and wealthiest cities of the Roman Empire. After the city was destroyed by Attila the Hun in A.D. 453, the survivors clustered in a drastically reduced settlement around the Basilica, which is the origin of the small present-day town. Most of the ancient city lies unexcavated beneath the surrounding fields.
SH66598. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Aquileia 243, gVF, some corrosion, well centered and struck, weight 7.562 g, maximum diameter 29.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Aquileia mint, 3 Nov 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB (security of the Republic), bull right, two stars above, •AQVILP in exergue; rare mint for the type; SOLD


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The only known unexcavated Roman Hippodrome in the world is in Sirmium. A colossal building about 150 meters wide and 450 meters long lies directly under the Sremska Mitrovica town center, beside the old Emperor's Palace. In early 1970s American archaeologists sponsored by the U.S. Government made an offer to the citizens of Sremska Mitrovica to completely rebuild the town on another location so Sirmium could be excavated. The request was refused and there are still no plans to excavate the arena, which would require the removal of the entire present town center.
SH21417. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Sirmium 106, LRBC II 1621, SRCV V 19153, Cohen VIII 38, EF, minor corrosion on reverse, weight 8.157 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) mint, summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB (security of the Republic), bull standing right, two stars above horns, *BSIRM and wreath in exergue; from the Scott Collection; SOLD


Click for a larger photo
The common belief which identifies the bull with the Apis bull is probably wrong. An interesting passage from Dio Chrysostom compares a good ruler to a bull. Also, Julian was most likely born in May, in the sign of Taurus. The stars are probably the two important star clusters in Taurus, Pleiades and Hyades. Taurus or Apis, this bull is pagan and this coin was the last pagan coin type issued by the Empire.
RL51539. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Constantinople 163, LRBC II 2059, aEF, weight 8.808 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 30o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 3 Nov 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB (security of the Republic), bull right, two stars above, branch CONSPA branch in exergue; SOLD


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SH11110. Silver siliqua, RIC VIII Lyons 218, Choice EF, weight 2.073 g, maximum diameter 18.28 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, obverse FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VOTIS V MVLTIS X in wreath, LVG in exergue; flan crack, spectacular rainbow toning; SOLD


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On March 5, 363 Julian departed Antioch with an army of 90,000, marching against the Sassanid Empire. On 29 May Julian arrived under the walls of the Sassanid capital and defeated the army of Shapur II at the Battle of Ctesiphon, but he was unable to put the city under siege. On June 16, Julian began a retreat from the Sassanid Empire. The Sassanids attacked the retreating Romans and on 26 June Julian was killed in battle. The general Jovian was proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield.
SH58901. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 412, Choice gVF, weight 8.974 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB (security of the Republic), bull standing right, two stars above; palm, BSIS•, palm in exergue; ex Ancient Numismatic Enterprise, nice glossy black patina, excellent centering; rare; SOLD




  




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OBVERSE LEGENDS

DNCLIVLANVSAVG
DNCLIVLIANVSNC
DNCLIVLIANVSNOBCAES
DNFLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
DNIVLIANVSNOBC
DNIVLIANVSNOBCAES
DNIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSNOBC
FLCLIVLIANVSNOBCAES
FLCLIVLIANVSPERPAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPPAVG
IVLIANVSAVG


REFERENCES

Carson, R., P. Hill & J. Kent. Late Roman Bronze Coinage. (London, 1960).
Carson, R., H. Sutherland and J. Kent. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol VIII, The Family of Constantine I, A.D. 337 - 364. (London, 1981).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 8: Nepotian to Romulus Augustus, plus tesserae & cotorniates. (Paris, 1888).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Constantin II à Zenon (337-491). Moneta 5. (Wetteren, 1996).
Ferrando, P. L'atelier monétaire d'Arles: de Constantin le Grand à Romulus Augustule (313-476). (Arles, 2010).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
King, C. & Sear, D. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. V: The Christian Empire: The Later Constantinian Dynasty and the Houses of Valentinian and Theodosius and Their Successors, Constantine II to Zeno, AD 337 - 491. (London, 2014).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Voetter, O. Die Münzen der romischen Kaiser, Kaiserinnen und Caesaren von Diocletianus bis Romulus: Katalog der Sammlung Paul Gerin. (Vienna, 1921).

Catalog current as of Friday, May 24, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Julian II