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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and DeclineView Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire

Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Alexandria Troas, Troas

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The representation of the decurions of Alexandria depicted on the reverse of this type is unique within the Roman provincial series. The decurions were members of municipal senates responsible for procuring funds for new public works, festivities and games, as well as for welfare networks. Their fiscal responsibilities also extended to the collecting of imperial taxes, for which they were expected to cover any shortfalls.
RP87204. Bronze AE 22, RPC IX 432 (12 spec.); Bellinger A409; SNG anakkale 376; BMC Troas p. 27, 145; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, aVF, dark green patina, reverse slightly off center, tiny encrustations, some legend weak, edge cracks, weight 4.586 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Jun/Jul 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverse IMP C VIBI TRIBO GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse The curia decurionum of Alexandria in session: nine men wearing togas seated in a semicircle, two outer men seated on curule chairs, two in center holding short staffs, AVG above, two steps below, ALEXAND on upper step, decorative pattern on lower step, TROADA in exergue; ex Roma Numismatics, e-sale 40 (28 Oct 2017), lot 429; very rare; $1300.00 SALE PRICE $1170.00


Maximus, Caesar, 235 or 236 - 24 June 238 A.D.

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When Augustus ruled Rome, he was not called emperor or king, he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named caesar and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.
SH89839. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 13, BMCRE V 213, Hunter III 11, Cohen IV 14, SRCV III 8411, gF, excellent portrait, well centered, edge split, weight 23.265 g, maximum diameter 32.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, early 236 - Apr 238 A.D.; obverse MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed and draped bust right, from behind; reverse PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS (to the Prince of Youth), Maximus standing left, head bare, short scepter in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, two military standards behind, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 73 (6 Jan 2019), lot 543; scarce; $380.00 SALE PRICE $342.00


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Zeugma, Commagene, Syria

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Zeugma was founded by Seleucus I Nicator who almost certainly named the city Seleucia after himself. In 64 B.C. the city was conquered by Rome and renamed Zeugma, meaning "bridge of boats." On the Silk Road connecting Antioch to China, Zeugma had a pontoon bridge across the Euphrates, which was the long time border with the Persian Empire. The Legio IV Scythica was camped in Zeugma. The legion and the trade station brought great wealth to Zeugma until, in 256, Zeugma was fully destroyed by the Sassanid king, Shapur I. An earthquake then buried the city beneath rubble. The city never regained its earlier prosperity and, after Arab raids in the 5th and 6th centuries, it was abandoned again.
SL89808. Bronze AE 27, Butcher 31c; SNG Cop 35; BMC Galatia p. 128, 35; SGICV 4142, NGC Ch VF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (4094544-007), weight 15.63 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 0o, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey) mint, 247 - 249 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ZEYΓMATEΩN, tetrastyle temple with peribolos enclosing the sacred grove of trees, below Capricorn right; from the Martineit Collection of Ancient and World Coins; $250.00 SALE PRICE $225.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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In 263 A.D., King Odenathus of Palmyra declared himself ruler of the area west of the River Euphrates and was given the title Dux Orientalis by Emperor Gallienus.
RB86184. Orichalcum sestertius, Gbl MIR 92h, RIC V J209, Cohen V 132, Hunter IV J24 corr. (described with aegis), SRCV III 10467, aVF, tight flan, dark green patina with light earthen deposits, some corrosion, a few blue-green spots, tiny edge cracks, weight 16.198 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse CONCORDIA EXERCIT (harmony with the army), Concord standing left holding patera and double cornucopia, S C (senatus consulto) at sides low across field; the lighter blue-green spots are hard, not powdery, and do NOT appear to be active corrosion; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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During Philip's reign the 1000th anniversary of Rome (248 A.D.) was celebrated, and magnificent games were held. This coin was issued as part of that celebration and the reverse undoubted depicts one of the animal types displayed and hunted in the Colosseum during the games.
RB87835. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 160a; Cohen V 183, Hunter III 107, SRCV III 9012, VF, nice portrait, well centered, some bumps and scratches, a little rough and porous, edge cracks, traces of shellac(?), weight 16.917 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right, from behind; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG (Secular games [provided by] the Emperors), stag standing right, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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This coin is from the issue celebrating the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Rome.
RS89477. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 15, RSC IV 178, Hunter III 46, SRCV III 8957, Choice VF, nice portrait, well centered, flow lines, reverse struck with a worn die, weight 3.884 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG (Secular games [provided by] the Emperors), she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, I I in exergue; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 73, part of lot 970; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Saloninus, Summer 260 A.D.

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Spes was the Roman personification of Hope. In art Spes is normally depicted carrying flowers or a cornucopia, but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right hand, while the left is raising a fold of her dress. She was also named "ultima dea" - for Hope is the last resort of men. On this coin, the Caesar, Saloninus, the designated successor of the emperor, is identified as the hope for the future of the Roman people.
RL88067. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1707e(1) (Samosata), RIC V-1 36 (Antioch), RSC IV 95a (Antioch), Hunter IV 12, Cunetio 865 (3 spec.), SRCV III 10775, nice VF, attractive dark tone, porosity, weight 3.111 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Syrian mint, as caesar, Jan - summer 260 A.D.; obverse SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SPES PVBLICA (the hope of the public), Saloninus (on left) standing right, wearing military garb, holding spear, confronting Spes standing left, raising skirt with left hand, presenting flower to prince with right hand, wreath above; $175.00 SALE PRICE $158.00


Tranquillina, Augusta, May 241 - 25 February 244 A.D., Wife of Gordian III, Etenna, Pamphylia Prima

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Etenna was a city in the late Roman province of Pamphylia Prima. Centuries earlier, it was considered within Pisidia, as by Polybius, who wrote that in 218 B.C. the people of Etenna "who live in the highlands of Pisidia above Side" provided 8000 hoplites to assist the Seleucid usurper Achaeus. There is no other mention of Etenna until the record of the participation of bishops of Etenna in the ecumenical councils of the 4th century A.D. However, there are examples of its fine silver coinage of the 4th and 3rd century B.C. and of its bronze coins from the 1st century B.C. to the 3rd century A.D. Etenna has been identified with the rather nondescript ruins on a steep hill 250500 meters north of the modern village of Sirt, north of Manavgat, Antalya Province, Turkey. They have not been systematically excavated, but include remains of city walls, a roofed reservoir, baths, two basilicas, a church and rock tombs.
RP88903. Bronze AE 32, vA Pisidiens 633 - 635 (same dies, 4 spec.), SNG BnF 1551, SNG Cop -, BMC Lycia -, RPC Online -, Lindgren -, F, countermark obverse lower right, porous, central depressions, weight 15.918 g, maximum diameter 32.3 mm, die axis 0o, Etenna (Sirt, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, May 241 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse CAB TPANKVΛΛEINA C, draped bust right, wearing stephane; reverse ETENNEΩN, Tyche seated left on rocks, kalathos on head, stalks of grain downward in right hand; only one sale recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; very rare; $170.00 SALE PRICE $153.00


Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

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It seems Felicitas disregarded the reverse of this coin, which was dedicated to her in the hope of promoting the good fortune of the people. In 251 A.D., a fifteen-year plague began in the Roman Empire.
SL89814. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 34, RIC IV 82, SRCV III 9628, Hunter III - (p. cvi), NGC Ch AU, strike 5/5, surface 4/5 (2412807-062), weight 3.58 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 251 - 252 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FELICITAS PVBL, Felicitas standing left, turreted, long grounded caduceus vertical in right hand, scepter in left hand; from the Martineit Collection of Ancient and World Coins; $170.00 SALE PRICE $153.00


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria, Syria

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In 248, overwhelmed by the number of invasions and usurpers, Philip offered to resign. The Senate decided to support the Emperor, with Gaius Messius Quintus Decius most vocal of all the senators. Philip was so impressed that he dispatched Decius with a special command of the Pannonian and Moesian provinces. His loyal supporter, Decius, was, however, proclaimed Emperor by the Danubian armies in the spring of 249 and defeated and killed Philip in September.
RP87838. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 1032(b) (ex. rare), Prieur 402A, SNG Cop -, BMC Galatia -, VF, well centered, uneven toning, earthen deposits,, weight 10.929 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 247 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, radiate and cuirassed bust left, without aegis, seen from the front; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC YΠATO Γ (holder of Tribunitian power, consul for the 3rd time), eagle standing right, head right, wings open, neither wing behind leg, wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA over S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; extremely rare; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00




  







Catalog current as of Wednesday, June 26, 2019.
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Crisis and Decline