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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||sestertius|
Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.
SH110382. Orichalcum sestertius, Gbl MIR 83s, RIC V-1 J249, Cohen V 1298, Hunter IV J33 var. (obv. leg. no P F); SRCV III 10495 var. (same), Choice VF, superb portrait, well centered on a squared unusually full flan, double strike, weight 22.146 g, maximum diameter 32.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder and back; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (the virtue of the two emperors), Virtus standing front, head left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right hand resting on grounded oval shield, inverted spear in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across the field below center; ex Leu Numismatik auction 17 (14 Aug 2021), lot 2813; $720.00 SALE PRICE $648.00


Cornelia Supera, Wife of Aemilian, 253 A.D., Imitative of Parion, Mysia

|Cornelia| |Supera|, |Cornelia| |Supera,| |Wife| |of| |Aemilian,| |253| |A.D.,| |Imitative| |of| |Parion,| |Mysia||AE| |23|
Cornelia Supera is unknown to history, except through her coins. Her coins indicate she was probably the wife of Aemilian.
SL112773. Bronze AE 23, For prototype, cf. RPC Online IX 382 (11 spec.), SNGvA 7448, BMC Mysia -, SNG Cop -, SNG BnF -, NGC Ch F (6827718-003), weight 3.943 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 45o, unofficial mint, 253 A.D.; obverse G CORN SUPERA AVG (or similar), diademed and draped bust right; reverse Capricorn right, cornucopia on back, globe between legs, C G I H P (blundered, Colonia Gemella Iulia Hadriana Pariana) below; NGC| Lookup; very rare; $500.00 SALE PRICE $450.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia||dichalkon|
Romans refounded Tyre as a colony in 64 B.C., when Pompey annexed Phoenicia to the Roman Empire. Tyre flourished under the Rome and remained a Roman port city, even under the Byzantine Empire, until the 7th century when it was taken by Muslim conquest.
RP96396. Bronze dichalkon, BMC Phoenicia p. 289, 465 var. (murex shell on right); Rouvier -; Baramki AUB -; SNG Hunt -; SNG Cop -, F, rough dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 16.345 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Phoenicia, Tyre (Lebanon) mint, Oct 253 - Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate bust right; reverse COL TVRO METR, river-god (Adonis?) standing facing, head left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right hand dropping incense on flaming altar at her feet on left, long grounded reed vertical in left hand, murex shell on left; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1971 Caesarea Maritima surface find; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; $280.00 SALE PRICE $252.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Akkilaion, Phrygia

|Other| |Phrygia|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.,| |Akkilaion,| |Phrygia||AE| |24|
Accilaeum flourished in the Roman period. It is believed it was located east of Dorylaeum and Midaeum on the Tembris River in northern Phrygia.
RP111939. Bronze AE 24, RPC Online VII.1 675; SNGvA 3364; SNG Righetti 1116; SNG Mun 51; SNG Leypold II 1374; BMC Phrygia p.3, 3; vA Phrygien I 5; Weber 6969, Choice F, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 5.660 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 180o, Accilaeum (Cobankaya, Turkey) mint, 29 Jul 238 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse AVT K M ANTΩ ΓOPΔIANO C (Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus), laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from front; reverse AKKIΛAEΩN, Nike (Victory) standing left on globe, raising wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand; this is the first coin of Accilaeum handled by FORVM; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; very rare; $225.00 SALE PRICE $203.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

|Valerian| |I|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.||sestertius|
Liberalitas coin types attest to occasions when the emperor has displayed his generosity towards the people by a distribution to them, in money, provisions, or both. The first mention of Liberalitas was on coins of Hadrian. It was a type frequently repeated by the succeeding emperors. Indeed these instances of imperial generosity are more carefully recorded on coins than they are by history. This coin advertises that Elagabalus has made his third distribution to the people. Liberality is personified by the image of a woman, holding in one hand a counting board, or square tablet with a handle on which are cut a certain number of holes. These boards were used to quickly count the proper number of coins or other items for distribution to each person. In the other hand she holds a cornucopia.
RB110380. Orichalcum sestertius, Gbl MIR 66h, RIC V-1 J165 (S), Hunter IV J45; SRCV III 10468, Cohen V 110, VF/F, nice green patina, nice portrait, tight round flan, most of legends off flan, weight 17.182 g, maximum diameter 25.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 2nd issue, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate, cuirassed and slightly draped, bust right; reverse LIBERALITAS AVGG, Liberalitas standing slightly left, wearing long chiton, counting board in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field below center; this is the first specimen of this type handled by FORVM; ex Degani Venizia (Plaza San Marco, Venice, Italy); scarce; $210.00 SALE PRICE $189.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.||denarius|
In Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume III, David Sear notes this type was issued for the wedding of Gordian and Tranquillina.
RS112530. Silver denarius, RIC IV 129A (R), RSC IV 325, Hunter III 62, SRCV III 8681, Choice EF, full borders on a broad flan, flow lines, dark black toning, weight 3.462 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 241 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse SALVS AVGVSTI (to the health of the Emperor), Salus standing right, draped, from patera held in left hand, feeding snake held in right hand; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 129 (4 Jun 2023), lot 607; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D.

|Maximinus| |I|, |Maximinus| |I| |Thrax,| |20| |March| |235| |-| |Late| |May| |238| |A.D.||denarius|
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.
RS112632. Silver denarius, RSC III 85, RIC IV 14, BMCRE VI 21, SRCV III 8304, Choice EF, mint luster, flow lines, well centered, edge ragged (as usual for the issue), weight 3.326 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Mar 235 - Jan 236 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse SALVS AVGVSTI (to the health of the Emperor), Salus seated left, from patera feeding snake coiled around altar, left elbow resting on back of throne; from the Collection of Dr. Jregen Buschek; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - late May 238 A.D., Philadelphia, Cilicia Trachea

|Cilicia|, |Maximinus| |I| |Thrax,| |20| |March| |235| |-| |late| |May| |238| |A.D.,| |Philadelphia,| |Cilicia| |Trachea||AE| |34|
Philadelphia (Greek: brotherly love) in ancient Cilicia Trachea (later of Isauria) was on the river Calycadnus, above Aphrodisias. Its site is tentatively located near Imsi ren in Asiatic Turkey. Neither Philadelphia in Lydia (Alasehir, Turkey today) nor Philadelphia, in the Decapolis, later Arabia Petraea (Amman, Jordan today) struck coins for Maximinus Thrax.
RB98739. Bronze AE 34, SNG BnF 760, SNG Levante 580, SNGvA 5804, SNG Leypold 2580, Lindgren-Kovacs 786, RPC Online VI T6889, EF, dark patina, pitting, a little off center, weight 14.930 g, maximum diameter 34.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cilicia, Philadelphia (near Imsi ren, Turkey) mint, 20 Mar 235 - late May 238 A.D.; obverse AVT K Γ IOVH MAΞIMEINOC, laureate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse ΦILALELFFEΩN KHTIΛOC, Tyche standing left, kalathos on head, grounded rudder in right hand held by tiller, cornucopia in left hand; from the CEB Collection, ex Edward J. Waddell, big 34mm!; $170.00 SALE PRICE $153.00


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Pamphylia, Side

|Side|, |Philip| |II,| |July| |or| |August| |247| |-| |Late| |249| |A.D.,| |Pamphylia,| |Side||pentassarion|
The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate. Next comes the colonnaded street, all that remains of the marble columns are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman period. Next is the square agora with the remains of a round Temple of Tyche in the middle. The agora was a trading center where pirates sold slaves. The remains of the theater, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theater. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored. The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum. The photograph right is of ruins of the temple of Apollo.Temple of Apollo
RP111997. Bronze pentassarion, RPC VIII Online 21154 (6 spec.), Watson 921, SNG BnF -, SNG Pflzer , SNGvA -, SNG Leypold -, BMC Pamphylia -, Choice F, well centered, grainy green patina, porosity, small scratch on obv., central dimples, weight 13.68 g, maximum diameter 32.5 mm, die axis 0o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 244 - 247 A.D.; obverse MAPKON IOYΛION CEYHPON ΦIΛIΠΠON KAICAPA, E, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, E (mark of value) in right field; reverse CIΔH-TΩN, Athena standing right, holding spear, facing radiate Artemis Pergaia standing left, holding torch, jointly sacrificing over altar between them, pomegranate above; ex CNG e-auction 526 (2 Nov 2022), lot 257; very rare; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Providence is most often depicted clothed in a matron's gown, holding a cornucopia in her left hand and in her right a short wand, which she points to a globe. She holds this globe in her right hand or it lies at her feet. The type is intended to mark the power and wisdom of the emperor, who ruled the Roman world.
RS112594. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 148, RSC IV 296, Hunter III 60, Cohen V 296, SRCV III 8654, Choice gVF, full border centering on a broad round flan, nice portrait, toned, flow lines, die wear, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.645 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 241 - 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse PROVID AVG (the foresight of the Emperor), Providentia standing slightly left, head left, wand pointed downward in right hand over globe at feet on left, long scepter vertical in left hand; from the Collection of Dr. Jregen Buschek; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00




  







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