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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Irenopolis-Neronias, Cilicia

|Cilicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Irenopolis-Neronias,| |Cilicia||7| |assaria|
Wandering the world in a panther-drawn chariot, Dionysos rode ahead of the maenads and satyrs, who sang loudly and danced, flushed with wine. They were profusely garlanded with ivy and held the thyrsus, a staff topped with a pine cone, a symbol of the immortality of his believers. Everywhere he went he taught men how to cultivate vines and the mysteries of his cult. Whoever stood in his way and refused to revere him was punished with madness.
RP96990. Bronze 7 assaria, Karbach Eirenopolis - (cf. 146-7 same obv. die, diff. rev. type); Leu web auction 12 (2020), 870 (same dies); SNG Levante -; SNG Paris -; SNG PFPS -, aVF/F, green patina with earthen deposits, weight 12.523 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 225o, Irenopolis (Dzici, Turkey) mint, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse ΠOY ΛIK Γ/θ>AΛIHNOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; uncertain round countermark; reverse IPHNOΠOΛE (or similar), Dionysos drinking with his entourage, standing facing, kantharos (wine cup) in his right hand, pedum (shepherd's crook) in his left hand, Pan on right supporting him, Satyr on left standing with outstretched right hand, panther seated left at feet on left, Z (mark of value) right; ex Leu Numismatik web auction 13 (15 Aug 2020), lot 921; the second known; $720.00 SALE PRICE $648.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia||dichalkon|
Romans refounded Tyre as a colony in 64 B.C., when Pompey annexed Phoenicia to the Roman Empire. Tyre flourished under the Rome and remained a Roman port city, even under the Byzantine Empire, until the 7th century when it was taken by Muslim conquest.
RP96396. Bronze dichalkon, BMC Phoenicia p. 289, 465 var. (murex shell on right); Rouvier -; Baramki AUB -; SNG Hunt -; SNG Cop -, F, rough dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 16.345 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre (Lebanon) mint, Oct 253 - Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate bust right; reverse COL TVRO METR, river-god (Adonis?) standing facing, head left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right hand dropping incense on flaming altar at her feet on left, long grounded reed vertical in left hand, murex shell on left; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1971 Caesarea Maritima surface find; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; $400.00 SALE PRICE $360.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Akko-Ptolemais, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Akko-Ptolemais,| |Phoenicia||AE| |27|
Akko was refounded as a Roman colony, colonia Ptolemais, probably in 53 or 54 A.D., the last year of Claudius' reign or the first year of Neros. Akko was one of hundreds of cities in the Roman provinces that minted civic coins. In the mid 3rd century cities stopped producing their own coins. The last city coins were struck under Gallienus, and Akko was among the very last cities to strike its own coins.
JD96394. Bronze AE 27, BMC Phoenicia p. 138, 50 var. (obv. leg.); Rosenberger 86 var. (same); Kadman Akko 256 var. (same, draped); Sofaer 293 ff. (draped, etc.); SNG Cop -, aF, rough green patina, light earthen deposits, a little off center, weight 13.158 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, Ake Ptolemais (Acre, Israel) mint, 253 - 268 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES LIC GALLIEN[VS AVG], laureate head right; reverse COL P-TOL, portable shrine containing a statue of Zeus Heliopolites, shrine consisting of a frame within two pillars supporting a architrave with hatched decoration, two carrying poles projecting from bottom, figure of deity within standing facing on rock or base, wearing short chiton, double axe in right hand, harpe(?) in left hand; an unpublished variant of a very rare type; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1977 surface find at Caesarea Maritima, Israel; $350.00 SALE PRICE $315.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Antioch, Syria

|Antioch|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Syria||tetradrachm|
The ruins of Antioch on the Orontes lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch is called "the cradle of Christianity, for the pivotal early role it played in the emergence of the faith. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Antioch was renamed Theoupolis after it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake on 29 November 528. Once a great metropolis of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east. 6th Century Antioch
RY99405. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 866 (v. rare), Prieur 285 (5 spec.), Dura 374, RPC VII.2 U68019, gVF, broad flan, areas of striking weakness and double strike, weight 10.410 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch mint, 240 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M ANT ΓOP∆IANOC CEB, radiate and cuirassed bust left, seen from the front; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOVCIAC, eagle standing slightly right facing, wings spread, head left, tail left, wreath in beak, S C (senatus consulto) below; rare; $215.00 SALE PRICE $194.00


Parium, Mysia, Mid 3rd century A.D.

|Parium|, |Parium,| |Mysia,| |Mid| |3rd| |century| |A.D.||AE| |22|
Founded in 709 B.C., the ancient city of Parion was a major coastal city, near Lampsacus, with two harbors used to connect Thrace with Anatolia. Parium belonged to the Delian League. In the Hellenistic period, it came under the domain of Lysimachus, and subsequently the Attalid dynasty. The last Attalid king, Attalus III died without issue and bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 B.C. Julius Caesar refounded it as a colonia. It was the main customs station through which all goods bound for Byzantium from Greece and the Aegean had to pass. Today it is the village of Kemer in the township of Biga, Canakkale province, Turkey.
RP98177. Bronze AE 22, BMC 83 var. (head left, obv. leg.), SNG BnF -, SNGvA -, BMC Mysia -, gVF, green patina, porous, earthen deposits, weight 4.806 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 90o, Parium (Kemer, Turkey) mint, c. mid 3rd century A.D.; obverse PARIOC CH (or similar) counterclockwise, youthful head of Parius (the mythical founder of the city) right; reverse Capricorn right, cornucopia above, C G I H P (Colonia Gemella Iulia Hadriana Pariana) counterclockwise below; extremely rare; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Neapolis, Samaria, Syria Palestina

|Roman| |Judea| |&| |Palestina|, |Philip| |II,| |July| |or| |August| |247| |-| |Late| |249| |A.D.,| |Neapolis,| |Samaria,| |Syria| |Palestina||AE| |28|
Neapolis, Samaria, the biblical Shechemis, is now Nablus, Israel, the site of Joseph's Tomb and Jacob's well. Jesus spoke here to a Samaritan woman. The city was refounded as Flavia Neopolis in Syria Palestina after the Jewish Revolt. These coin types were used by archaeologists in the 1950's and 60's to locate the remains of the temple complex by comparing the profile of the mountain to the surrounding terrain.
RP98110. Bronze AE 28, Harl Neapolis 68 (A16/P65); RPC Online VIII U2411; BMC Palestine p. 69, 140; SNG Cop 20; Rosenberger III 101; Sofaer 134 corr. (Philip I), aVF, well centered, highlighting earthen deposits, grainy porous surfaces, weight 11.690 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 180o, Neapolis (Nablus, Israel) mint, Jul/Aug 247- Late 249 A.D.; obverse IMP C M IVL PHI-LIPPO P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse COL SER-G NEAP-OL, Mt. Gerizim comprised of two masses separated by a ravine, arched colonnade below, stairway up the left mass to temple on peak, road up to altar on right peak, all supported by an eagle standing slightly left, head right, wings open; ex Menashe Landman Collection; scarce; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D.

|Maximinus| |I|, |Maximinus| |I| |Thrax,| |20| |March| |235| |-| |Late| |May| |238| |A.D.||denarius|
Maximinus' first campaign was against the Alamanni, whom he defeated despite heavy Roman casualties. After the victory, he took the title Germanicus Maximus. The Historia Augusta, mentions that Maximinus marched north from Moguntiacum (today's Mainz) about trecenta (300) to quadringenta (400) Roman miles. Since this was thought to be impossible, the passage was often "corrected" to read triginta (30) to quadraginta (40) Roman miles. New evidence indicates Maximinus did launch a campaign deep into Germania and defeated a Germanic tribe in a battle at the Harzhorn pass in Northern Germany. The site of the battle was discovered in 2000 by hobby archaeologists using metal detectors. The latest coins found at the site to date were struck under Severus Alexander. By 2008 it was clear from the artifacts discovered that this was the site of a battle involving a large number of Roman troops. The current hypothesis is that the Roman troops were on their way back from the North German Plain. They found the Harzhorn pass blocked by a large number of Germans, and successfully fought their way through by using their superior technology, Roman artillery.
RS99254. Silver denarius, RIC IV 23, RSC III 107, BMCRE VI 187, SRCV III 8318, Hunter III 19, Choice gVF, centered on a broad flan, flow lines, flan cracks, die wear, weight 2.335 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Jan 236 - Apr 238 A.D.; obverse MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse VICTORIA GERM (victory over the Germans), Victory standing half left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, captive seated left at feet on left; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Volusian, c. November 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

|Antioch|, |Volusian,| |c.| |November| |251| |-| |July| |or| |August| |253| |A.D.||tetradrachm|
Gaius Vibius Afinius Gallus Vedumnianus Volusian was the son of Trebonianus Gallus and was given the rank of Caesar when his father became emperor. After emperor Hostilian was killed, he was raised to the rank of Augustus. He was assassinated along with his father in 253 A.D.
RY99417. Silver tetradrachm, RPC online IX 1795; McAlee 1187b; Prieur 695 (rare); SNG Hunterian 3125; BMC Galatia p. 230, 658; Dura 614, gVF, toned, tight flan, light corrosion/porosity, weight 10.901 g, maximum diameter 25.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1st issue, late 251 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K Γ AΦIN ΓAΛ OYEN∆ OYOΛOYCCIANOC CEB, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front, (2nd officina) below; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC (holder of Tribunitian power), eagle standing slightly right on line, wings open, head left, wreath in beak, B (2nd officina) between legs, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; scarce; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Alexandreia Troas, Troas

|Troas|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Alexandreia| |Troas,| |Troas||AE| |22|
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul) is on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of the west coast of Anatolia, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). The city was founded by Antigonus around 310 B.C. with the name Antigoneia and was populated with the inhabitants of Cebren, Colone, Hamaxitus, Neandria, and Scepsis. About 301 B.C., Lysimachus improved the city and re-named it Alexandreia. Among the few structure ruins remaining today are a bath, an odeon, a theater and gymnasium complex and a stadium. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.
RP97537. Bronze AE 22, Bellinger Troy A431, RPC Online -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA-, SNG Canakkale -, BMC Troas -, gVF, bold portrait, dark brown patina with touches of green and red, flow lines, edge splits, weight 4.428 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Oct 253 - c. Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP LICIN VALERIAN, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse COL A-V-G-O TRO, Tyche standing facing, head left, wearing turreted crown, cult statue of Apollo Smintheus (quiver on shoulder, holding bow (and patera?)) in her right hand, vexillum in her left hand; ex CNG e-auction 442 (17 April 2019), lot 669; ex N. M. McQ. Holmes Collection; ex CNG auction 46 (24 Jun 1998), lot 831; very rare; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Isinda, Pisidia

|Pisidia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Isinda,| |Pisidia||assarion|
Isinda stood in a strategic position at the western end of the pass leading from Pamphylia by Termessus to Pisidia. The coinage of Isinda indicates the city considered itself an Ionian colony.
RP97734. Bronze assarion, SNG BnF 1622; SNG Pfalz 234; BMC Lycia p. 227, 21; SNG Hunterian -; SNGvA -; SNG Cop -, aVF, dark brown patina, weight 8.444 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 180o, Isinda (Kisla, Turkey) mint, Oct 253 - c. Jun 260 A.D.; obverse AK ΠΛ OVAΛEPIANON CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse ICIN-∆-EΩN, mother goddess seated right on a high backed throne, holding swaddled infant on her lap, coiled serpent rising up before her; ex Numismatica Ars Classica Auction 100 (29 May 2017), lot 1320; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00




  







Catalog current as of Thursday, May 19, 2022.
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