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Kaunos was a city of ancient Caria and in Anatolia, a few km west of the modern town of Dalyan, Muğla Province, Turkey. The Calbys river (now known as the Dalyan river) was the border between Caria and Lycia. Initially Kaunos was a separate state, then it became a part of Caria, and later still of Lycia. Kaunos was an important sea port, the history of which is supposed to date back till the 10th century B.C. Because of silting of the former Bay of Dalyan (from c. 200 B.C. onwards), Kaunos is now about 8 km from the coast. The city had two ports. The southern port was used from the foundation of the city till roughly the end of the Hellenistic era, after which it became inaccessible due to drying out. The inner or trade port could be closed by chains. The latter was used till the late days of Kaunos, but due to the silting of the delta and the ports, Kaunos had by then long lost its important function as a trade port. After Caria had been captured by Turkish tribes and a serious malaria epidemic in the 15th century A.D., Kaunos was completely abandoned. Outside the official Kaunos archeological site, there are beautiful rock tombs on the Dalyan river.
Kaunos, Caria, c. 300 - 280 B.C., Civic Issue in the Name and Types of Alexander the Great
See R.H.J. Ashton's article, "Kaunos, not Miletos or Mylasa," in NC 2004, pp. 33-46, for the reattribution to Kaunos.GS72539. Silver tetradrachm, Ashton, NC 2004, pp. 33-46; Price 2074 (Miletus or Mylasa, Ionia), Müller Alexander 1128; SNG Cop -; SNG Munchen -; SNG Alpha Bank -, gVF, light corrosion, marks, weight 16.135 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos (Dalyan, Turkey) mint, c. 300 - 280 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin, scalp over head, forepaws tied at neck; reverse Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, right leg drawn back, double headed axe in left field, AΛEΞAN∆POY downward on right; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 490 - 470 B.C.
Caria was made a Persian satrapy in 545 B.C. The area rebelled along with Ionia c. 497 B.C. but was subdued by 493 B.C. After Xerxes' defeats, the Persians withdrew from the western Anatolian coast and Kaunos joined the Delian League, founded in 477 B.C. This type, the earliest from Kaunos, was struck during this tumultuous period or shortly after.
In 387 B.C. Kaunos again fell under Persian rule. It was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in 334 B.C.
The baetyl, a stone cult object, was found in Kaunos, broken in two parts, in the ruins of a round building near the harbor. Made of limestone, over 4 meters high and 1.5 meters wide, it appears the stone was originally worshiped in the open. The temple was built around it in the 4th century B.C.SH58889. Silver stater, Konuk 1 - 2, Troxell Winged 1 -2, Asyut Hoard 669 - 685, SNGvA 2345, Rosen 618 - 619, Dewing -, SNG Cop -, VF, weight 11.609 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, Kaunos mint, c. 490 - 470 B.C.; obverse Iris running-kneeling left, open curved wings, arms extended, head turned back right, wearing long chiton and winged shoes, two scrolls curling from top of her head; reverse conical baetyl within a crude square incuse; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 430 - 410 B.C.
GS53297. Silver stater, Dewing 2359 (same dies); Konuk, "The Early Coinage of Kaunos" in Studies Price 94 (O36/R35); Troxell, "Winged Carians" in Essays Thompson p. 260, 26, F, weight 11.160 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 315o, Kaunos mint, c. 430 - 410 B.C.; obverse winged female figure running left, caduceus in right, wreath in left; reverse baetyl flanked by a bunch of grapes on each side, inverted ∆ above; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 120 - 100 B.C.
In 189 B.C. the Roman senate put Kaunos under Rhodes. In 167, Kaunos and other cities revolted against Rhodes. As a result, Rome removed Rhodes' authority. In 129, Rome established the Province of Asia, covering a large part of western Anatolia. Kaunos was assigned to Lycia. When Mithridates invaded in 88 B.C., the Kaunians joined him and killed all the Romans in the city. After the peace of 85 B.C. as part of their punishment, Kaunos was again put under Rhodian administration.GS58370. Silver hemidrachm, Ashton NC 2004 p. 44, footnote 36; otherwise unpublished but a few examples online, VF, edge chips, weight 0.881 g, maximum diameter 12.0 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos mint, 166 - 100 B.C.; obverse helmeted and draped bust of Athena right; reverse sword in sheath, MENI−ΠΠOΣ (Roman magistrate) above, K-AY (AY ligate) across field, two stars below; very rare; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, 390 - 370 B.C.
GB18457. Bronze AE 9, Klein 526; H. Troxell, Winged Carians, Essays Thompson p. 261, 30; K. Konuk, The Early Coinage of Kaunos, Studies Price p. 214, 117, VF, black patina, weight 0.970 g, maximum diameter 9.1 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos mint, 390 - 370 B.C.; obverse Apollo head facing; reverse Sphinx standing left; ex M&M 10/05 #880, sold for 70 Euros plus commission; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 166 - 100 B.C.
GS05180. Silver hemidrachm, SNG Keckman 83, SGCV II 4818, VF, weight 1.02 g, maximum diameter 12.4 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos mint, 166 - 100 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse sword in sheath with strap, ΦA−POΣ (magistrate) across upper fields, K left, monogram and bunch of grapes right; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 5th Century B.C.
Caria was made a Persian satrapy in 545 B.C. The area rebelled along with Ionia c. 497 B.C. but was subdued by 493 B.C. After Xerxes' defeats, the Persians withdrew from the western Anatolian coast and Kaunos joined the Delian League, founded in 477 B.C. In 387 B.C. Kaunos again fell under Persian rule. It was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in 334 B.C.GA49297. Silver obol, Künker 89, 1391; SNG Keckman 65 var. (diobol); SNGvA 2338-9 var. (same); Klein -; SNG Cop -, aVF, weight 1.098 g, maximum diameter 8.7 mm, Kaunos mint, obverse forepart of lion left; reverse incuse square; rare; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 309 - 189 B.C.
In 189 B.C. the Roman senate put Kaunos under Rhodes. In 167, Kaunos and other cities revolted against Rhodes. As a result, Rome removed Rhodes' authority. In 129, Rome established the Province of Asia, covering a large part of western Anatolia. Kaunos was assigned to Lycia. When Mithridates invaded in 88 B.C., the Kaunians joined him and killed all the Romans in the city. After the peace of 85 B.C. as part of their punishment, Kaunos was again put under Rhodian administration.GS30240. Bronze AE 10, SNG Keckman 75; SNGvA 8100; SNG Cop 184; BMC Caria p. 75, 12, VF, tight flan, porous, weight 1.267 g, maximum diameter 10.4 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos mint, c. 309 - 189 B.C.; obverse diademed young head (Alexander the Great?) right; reverse cornucopia bound with fillet, K-AY (AY in monogram) divided across field; scarce; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 390 - 270 B.C.
Gergis, on the north of the river Scamnander in Troas, was believed by some to have been the birthplace of the Sibyl. After Herakles slew his wife and children in a fit induced by Hera, Sybil Herophile told him that as penance he was must to carry out twelve tasks set by his arch-enemy, Eurystheus, who had become King in his stead. In the mid-third century B.C., King Attalus of Pergamon transplanted the inhabitants of Gergis to a place called Gergetha or Gergithion, near Larissa in Cyme.GB66020. Bronze chalkous, Konuk Kaunos 118, SNG Keckman 828, aVF, weight 1.126 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos (Dalyan, Turkey) mint, c. 390 - 270 B.C.; obverse facing head of Apollo turned slightly to right; reverse sphinx seated left, curved wing raised upward; ; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 2nd Century B.C.
A puzzling tiny bronze. The obverse style does not match the coins pictured by standard references, while the ethnic is written inverted and reversed. Perhaps it is an imitative of the usual Alexander the Great / cornucopia issue, SNG Cop 184.GB81908. Bronze AE 9, SNGvA -, SNG Keckman -, SNG Cop -, BMC Caria -, aVF, weight 0.840 g, maximum diameter 9.2 mm, die axis 270o, Kaunos mint, c. 2nd century B.C.; obverse head right; reverse cornucopia, X - K (reversed) across fields; very rare; SOLD
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