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Kaunos was a city of ancient Caria and in Anatolia, a few km west of the modern town of Dalyan, Muğla Province, Turkey. The Calbys river (now known as the Dalyan river) was the border between Caria and Lycia. Initially Kaunos was a separate state, then it became a part of Caria, and later still of Lycia. Kaunos was an important sea port, the history of which is supposed to date back till the 10th century B.C. Because of silting of the former Bay of Dalyan (from c. 200 B.C. onwards), Kaunos is now about 8 km from the coast. The city had two ports. The southern port was used from the foundation of the city till roughly the end of the Hellenistic era, after which it became inaccessible due to drying out. The inner or trade port could be closed by chains. The latter was used till the late days of Kaunos, but due to the silting of the delta and the ports, Kaunos had by then long lost its important function as a trade port. After Caria had been captured by Turkish tribes and a serious malaria epidemic in the 15th century A.D., Kaunos was completely abandoned. Outside the official Kaunos archeological site, there are beautiful rock tombs on the Dalyan river.
Kaunos, Caria, c. 490 - 470 B.C.
Caria was made a Persian satrapy in 545 B.C. The area rebelled along with Ionia c. 497 B.C. but was subdued by 493 B.C. After Xerxes' defeats, the Persians withdrew from the western Anatolian coast and Kaunos joined the Delian League, founded in 477 B.C. In 387 B.C. Kaunos again fell under Persian rule. It was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in 334 B.C. The baetyl, a stone cult object, was found in Kaunos, broken in two parts, in the ruins of a round shrine near the harbor. Made of limestone, over 4 meters high and 1.5 meters wide, it appears the stone was originally worshiped in the open. The temple was built around it in the 4th century B.C.SH59841. Silver stater, Konuk 11 (O9/R8); Troxell Winged 6 (same dies), SNG Keckman 810 (same obv die); Asyut 684 (same); BMC Lycaonia p. 95, 3; SNGvA 2344; Rosen 622, VF, weight 11.766 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 180o, Kaunos (Dalyan, Turkey) mint, c. 490 - 470 B.C.; obverse Iris running-kneeling right with open curved wings, arms extended, head turned back left, wearing long chiton and winged shoes, two scrolls curling from top of her head (earliest archaic style); reverse conical baetyl within a crude square incuse; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 430 - 410 B.C.
Caria was made a Persian satrapy in 545 B.C. The area rebelled along with Ionia c. 497 B.C. but was subdued by 493 B.C. After Xerxes' defeats, the Persians withdrew from the western Anatolian coast and Kaunos joined the Delian League, founded in 477 B.C. In 387 B.C. Kaunos again fell under Persian rule. It was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in 334 B.C. The baetyl, a stone cult object, was found in Kaunos, broken in two parts, in the ruins of a round shrine near the harbor. Made of limestone, over 4 meters high and 1.5 meters wide, it appears the stone was originally worshiped in the open. The temple was built around it in the 4th century B.C.SH46947. Silver stater, Dewing 2359 (same dies); Konuk 94 (O36/R35); BMC Cilicia p. 96, 6 & pl 16, 2; Troxell Winged p. 260, 26; SNG Delepierre 2783, VF, worn and rusted dies, weight 11.672 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos (Dalyan, Turkey) mint, c. 430 - 410 B.C.; obverse Iris running-kneeling left, open curved wings, head turned back right, wearing long chiton, kerykeion in right hand, wreath in left hand (archaic style); reverse pyramidal baetyl with handles near the top, flanked by a stylized bird on each side, all within incuse square, no Carian letter; ex CNG auction 61 (Sep 2002), lot 740; SOLD
Kaunos, Caria, c. 300 - 280 B.C., Civic Issue in the Name and Types of Alexander the Great
See R.H.J. Ashton's article, "Kaunos, not Miletos or Mylasa," in NC 2004, pp. 33-46, for the reattribution to Kaunos.GS72539. Silver tetradrachm, Ashton, NC 2004, pp. 33-46; Price 2074 (Miletus or Mylasa, Ionia), Müller Alexander 1128; SNG Cop -; SNG Munchen -; SNG Alpha Bank -, gVF, light corrosion, marks, weight 16.135 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos (Dalyan, Turkey) mint, c. 300 - 280 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin, scalp over head, forepaws tied at neck; reverse Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, right leg drawn back, double headed axe in left field, AΛEΞANΔPOY downward on right; SOLD
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