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Byzantine Empire, Isaac I Comnenus, 1 September 1057 - 22 November 1059
Isaac I Komnenos was the founder of the Komnenian dynasty. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised under the care of Emperor Basil II. He made his name as a successful military commander. In 1057 he led a conspiracy of dissatisfied eastern generals against the newly crowned Michael VI. Proclaimed emperor by his followers on 8 Jun 1057, he rallied sufficient military forces to defeat the loyalist army at the Battle of Hades. On 1 Sep 1057, Isaac was crowned emperor in the Hagia Sophia. To strengthen the Empire's fiscal condition he reduced salaries, implemented harsh tax measures and confiscated Church properties. This aroused much opposition particularly, from the Patriarch of Constantinople, whom he had arrested and exiled but who died before he was put on trial. The eastern frontier held firm during his reign, Hungarian raids were resolved by a treaty in 1059, while the restive Pechenegs were subdued by Isaac in person in summer 1059. Soon after, he fell ill and abdicated his throne in favor of Constantine X Doukas. Isaac retired to the Stoudion monastery where he died in 1060.