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The Byzantine Empire issued more gold, billion, and bronze coins than silver.
Byzantine Empire, Constantine X Ducas, 25 December 1059 - 21 May 1067 A.D.
Constantine X seems to have been a weak, ineffective leader. His wife, Eudocia, had great power within the empire, and was thought by some to be "the power behind the throne." Upon the death of Constantine X, his eldest son, Michael VII was still a child, so Eudocia took over as regent.BZ86363. Silver 2/3 miliaresion, DOC III-2 6a, Morrisson BnF , Wroth BMC 9, Ratto 2013, Sommer 52.5.1, SBCV 1851, Grierson 962 var. (sigla), VF, dark toning, holed (3), chipped, broken and repaired (typical for this rare issue), weight 1.317 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 25 Dec 1059 - 21 May 1067; obverse + ΘKE ROHΘ (Greek abbreviation for God-bearer), Virgin Mary standing facing, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, cross of five dots to left and right of head, MHP (ligature) - ΘV (Greek abbreviation for Mother of God) across field; reverse +ΘKE RO/HΘEI KWN/CTANTINW / ∆ECWOTH / TW ∆OUKA (OU ligate, God-bearer, aid Constantine Ducas the Despot) in five lines, ornaments above and below; very rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Byzantine Empire, Manuel II Palaeologus, 25 September 1373 - 1423 A.D.
After his older brother Andronikos IV tried to usurp their father's throne, Manuel II was made co-emperor and heir. In 1376 - 1379 and again in 1390 Andronikos IV and then his son John VII seized rule. Manuel defeated his nephew and restored his father's throne. He was then sent as a hostage to the court of the OttomanSultan Bayezid I, where he was forced to participate in the Ottoman campaign that reduced Philadelphia, the last Byzantine enclave in Anatolia. After a five year Ottoman siege, in 1399 Manuel left for the European courts to seek aid. Relations between John VII and Manuel had improved and John VII was left as regent. The siege was lifted after the Mongols defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara. Taking advantage of the Ottoman civil war that followed and rival princes seeking friendship, John VII secured the return some lost territory including the city of Thessalonica. When Manuel returned home in 1403, his nephew retired to govern Thessalonica. Manuel was friendly with Mehmed I but after Mehmed died in 1421, the Ottomans assault began anew. Manuel relinquished most duties to his son and heir John VIII, and left again to seek aid. Unsuccessful, the Byzantines were forced to pay tribute to the sultan. Manuel II retired as a monk in 1423 and died on 21 July 1425.BZ86362. Silver half stravraton, quarter hyperpyron, sigla 38; Bendall PCPC 334.20 (same rev. die), DOC V 1447 (same), Lianta 943 (same), Grierson 1517, Sommer 88.2, SBCV 2551, VF, centered on a tight flan, scrape, corrosion/porosity, edge cracks, weight 3.580 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 1403 - 1423; obversebust of Christ facing, crossnimbus with pellets in arms, tunic and himation, right raised in benediction, Gospels in left, double border with pellets between, IC - XC flanking across field, pellet above and below XC in right field; reverse MANVHΛ BACIΛEV C O ΠAΛEOΛOΓO, bust of John VII facing, bearded, nimbate, crown with pendilia, pellet over B on left, pellet over reversed B on right; scarce; SOLD
Byzantine Empire, Leo V the Armenian and Constantine, 25 December 813 - 25 December 820 A.D.
Leo V the Armenian replaced Michael I as emperor and attempted to restore some of the lost glory of the Byzantine Empire. His greatest goal was to restore iconoclasm (the rejection or destruction of religious images as heretical), but he had few supporters for this idea. He took to persecution to enforce his goals, leading to his assassination on Christmas day in the church of St. Sophia.BZ86579. Silver miliaresion, DOC III-1 4, Wroth BMC 4, Morrison BnF 30/Cp/AR/2, Tolstoi 10, Ratto 1799, Grierson 666, SBCV 1628 1818, EF, toned, areas slightly weak, reverse slightly double struck, die cracks, light marks and scratches, weight 2.209 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, obverse IhSUS XRISTUS nICA (Jesus Christ conquers), cross potent on three steps; reverse +LEOn/S COnSTAn/TInE EC ΘEY / bASILIS RO/mAIOn (Leo and Constantine, by the grace of God, Kings of Romans) in five lines; SOLD
Bellinger, A. & P. Grierson, eds. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection. (Washington D.C., 1966 - 1999).
Bendall, S. & P. Donald. Later Palaeologan Coinage, 1282-1453. (London, 1979).
Füeg, F. Corpus of the Nomismata from Anastasius II to John I in Constantinople, 713 - 976. (2007).
Füeg, F. "Vom Umgang mit Zufall und Wahrscheinlichkeit in der Numismatischen Forschung" in SNR 76 (1997).
Grierson, P. Byzantine Coins. (London, 1999).
Hahn, W. Moneta Imperii Byzantini. (Vienna, 1973-81).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Hennequin, G. Catalogue des monnaies musulmanes de la Bibliotheque Nationale. (Paris, 1985).
Lianta, E. Late Byzantine Coins, 1204 - 1453, in the Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. (London, 2009).
Morrisson, C. Catalogue des Monnaies Byzantines de la Bibliothèque Nationale. (Paris, 1970).
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Sommer, A. Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Münzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Ratto, R. Monnaies Byzantines et d'autre Pays contemporaines à l'époque byzantine. (Lugano, 1930).
Retowski, O. Die Münzen der Komnenen von Trapezunt. (Braunschweig, 1974).
Tolstoi, I. Monnaies byzantines. (St. Petersburg, 1913 - 14).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1908).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Lombards and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British Museum. (London, 1911).
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