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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |River God||View Options:  |  |  | 

River Gods
Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia||dichalkon|
Romans refounded Tyre as a colony in 64 B.C., when Pompey annexed Phoenicia to the Roman Empire. Tyre flourished under the Rome and remained a Roman port city, even under the Byzantine Empire, until the 7th century when it was taken by Muslim conquest.
RP96396. Bronze dichalkon, BMC Phoenicia p. 289, 465 var. (murex shell on right); Rouvier -; Baramki AUB -; SNG Hunt -; SNG Cop -, F, rough dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 16.345 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Phoenicia, Tyre (Lebanon) mint, Oct 253 - Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate bust right; reverse COL TVRO METR, river-god (Adonis?) standing facing, head left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right hand dropping incense on flaming altar at her feet on left, long grounded reed vertical in left hand, murex shell on left; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1971 Caesarea Maritima surface find; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; $280.00 SALE PRICE $252.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Nisibis, Mesopotamia

|Mesopotamia| |&| |Babylonia|, |Philip| |I| |the| |Arab,| |February| |244| |-| |End| |of| |September| |249| |A.D.,| |Nisibis,| |Mesopotamia||AE| |25|NEW
Nisibis is the city of Netzivin in the Talmud. The Jews of Nisibis resisted the Roman conqueror, Trajan, to maintain Parthian rule. The city was taken only after a lengthy siege. After the it fell, Nisibis was laid waste and the massacre was so great that the houses, streets, and roads were strewn with corpses.
RP112705. Bronze AE 25, RPC Online VIII U2787; SNG Cop 242; SNG Hunterian 2446; BMC Arabia p. 122, 17; Lindgren-Kovacs 2603; McClean 9557, VF, obv. off center on a very broad flan, toned bare copper, porosity, weight 10.033 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 0o, Nisibis (Nusaybin, Turkey) mint, 247 - 249 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOUΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse IOY CEΠ KOΛΩ NECIBI MHT, tetrastyle temple with twisted columns; within arched central bay: statue of Tyche seated facing, ram (sign of Ares) leaping right with head turned back left above, river-god swimming right below; from the Michael Arslan Collection ; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Hierapolis-Kastabala, Cilicia, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.

|Cilicia|, |Hierapolis-Kastabala,| |Cilicia,| |2nd| |-| |1st| |Century| |B.C.||AE| |20|
Hierapolis-Kastabala is located three kilometers north of the Ceyhan River (the ancient Pyramus) in the southern Turkish province of Osmaniye. Alexander the Great stopped at Kastabala before the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. Antiochus IV renamed the city Hierapolis.
GB110012. Bronze AE 20, SNG BnF 2217 var. (monogram); SNGvA 5570 var. (same); BMC Lycaonia p. 82, 3 var. (same); SNG Levante 1569 var. (same); SNG Cop 144 var. (same), gF, green patina, scratches, weight 6.685 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cilicia, Hierapolis-Castabala (Kirmitli, Turkey) mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse veiled head of Tyche right with turreted crown, monogram (control) behind; reverse The river-god Pyramos swimming right, eagle standing right on right hand, IEPO/ΠOΠITΠN in two lines above, TΩN ΠPOΣ TΩ/I ΠYP AMΩI in two lines below; ex Classical Numismatic Group, ex Richard L. Horst Collection; monogram missing from references but one specimen on coin archives; $75.00 SALE PRICE $67.50


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
The name Ostia was derived from the Latin "ostium" - river mouth. At the mouth of the River Tiber, Ostia was Rome's seaport. Construction of the port facilities began under Claudius and was likely completed just before this sestertius was struck in 64 A.D. Trajan and Hadrian expanded the facilities. The port was abandoned due to silting and now lies 3 km from the sea. The site is noted for the excellent preservation of its ancient buildings, magnificent frescoes and impressive mosaics.
SH86120. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 178, BMCRE I 131, Mac Dowall WCN 120, BnF II 299, Hunter I 39, Cohen I 37, SRCV 1953, VF, well centered, nice portrait, near black patina, scratches on obverse lower right field, some porosity and tiny pitting, weight 26.031 g, maximum diameter 34.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 64 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate bust right, wearing aegis; reverse AVGVSTI above, S - C divided by POR OST below, bird's-eye view Ostia harbor: pharos lighthouse with Neptune statue on top at far side center; crescent-shaped pier with building and figure sacrificing at far end, crescent-shaped row of breakwaters or slips on right with figure seated on rock at far end, 7 ships within port; river god Tiber reclining left holding rudder and dolphin below; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 195 (7 Mar 2011), lot 405; an attractive example of a highly desired type!; SOLD


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Traianopolis, Thrace

|Other| |Thrace| |&| |Moesia|, |Septimius| |Severus,| |9| |April| |193| |-| |4| |February| |211| |A.D.,| |Traianopolis,| |Thrace||AE| |31|
Hebros is the Romanized version of the original Thracian Ebros. Today it is the Maritsa river or, in Greece, the Evros. The river enters the Aegean Sea near Enez. The lower course of the Maritsa/Evros forms part of the Bulgarian-Greek border and most of the Greek-Turkish border. The upper Maritsa valley runs east-west in Bulgaria. The unnavigable river is used for power production and irrigation.

The Three Graces, named Euphrosyne, Aglaia and Thalia, were the attendants of Venus (Aphrodite).
SH74540. Brass AE 31, Schnert-Geiss Augusta Traiana 27 (V13/R24), Varbanov III 2739, SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, F, well centered, cleaning scratches, smoothing, weight 11.934 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, die axis 15o, Traianopolis (Traianoupoli, Greece) mint, hegemon Statilus Barbarus; obverse AV K Λ CEΠ - CEVHPOC Π, laureate head right; reverse HΓ CTATI BAPBAPOV TPAIANOΠOΛEITΩN, River-god Hebrus reclining left on upturned urn; the Charites (the Three Graces) behind his legs standing facing; left and middle Charites with heads right, left Charis holding rod(?), middle Charis holding apple; big 31 mm bronze!; very rare; SOLD


Gela, Sicily, 420 - 405 B.C.

|Gela|, |Gela,| |Sicily,| |420| |-| |405| |B.C.||tetras|
Gela, named after the river Gela, was founded by colonists from Rhodos and Crete around 688 B.C. In 424 B.C., the Congress of Gela established a "Sicily for the Sicilians" platform and formed a league that pushed back the Athenian attempt to conquer the island. The city had a history of internal strife between its plebs and aristocrats. When the Carthaginians arrived in 311 BC, they easily captured the Gela with the help of its elites. In 282 B.C., Phintias of Agrigento ruthlessly destroyed Gela to crush its power forever. In Roman times it was only a small settlement.
SH71354. Bronze tetras, Jenkins Gela 516; Calciati III p. 17, 32; SNG ANS 115; SNG Cop 283; SNG Munchen 314; BMC Sicily, p. 73, 66; HGC 2 379 (S), VF/gVF, green patina, weight 3.301 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 315o, Gela mint, 420 - 405 B.C.; obverse bull standing left, head lowered and turned slightly facing, barley kernel over ΓΕΛAΣ above, three pellets in exergue; reverse horned head of beardless young river-god Gela right, no diadem, floating hair, barley kernel behind; scarce; SOLD


Katane, Sicily, c. 415 - 404 B.C.

|Katane|, |Katane,| |Sicily,| |c.| |415| |-| |404| |B.C.||tetras|
Katane was captured by Dionysios of Syracuse in 403 B.C., who sold the population into slavery and resettled the city with Campanian mercenaries. The city submitted to Rome during the First Punic war.
GI96877. Bronze tetras, Calciati III p. 91, 1; SNG ANS 1272; BMC Sicily p. 50, 51; HGC 2 607 (S); SNG Cop -; SNG Mun -, VF, nice green patina, attractive style, centered on a tight flan, light marks, scattered small pits, weight 1.668 g, maximum diameter 13.0 mm, die axis 270o, Katane (Catania, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 415 - 404 B.C.; obverse AMENANOΣ (clockwise on left), young head of river-god Amenanos left, with horns and wavy hair; reverse winged thunderbolt, wings open, K-A flanking under wings, three small pellets around (two above wings, one right); scarce; SOLD


Katane, Sicily, c. 461 - 413 B.C., Dies Engraved by Euanotos

|Katane|, |Katane,| |Sicily,| |c.| |461| |-| |413| |B.C.,| |Dies| |Engraved| |by| |Euanotos||drachm|
Catania, on the east coast of Sicily facing the Ionian Sea, has had a long and eventful history, having been founded in the 8th century B.C. As observed by Strabo, the location of Catania at the foot of Mount Etna has been both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, violent outbursts of the volcano throughout history have destroyed large parts of the city, on the other hand, the volcanic ashes yield fertile soil, especially suited for the growth of vines. (Strab. vi. p. 269)
GS77854. Silver drachm, Rizzo pl. 14, 7; SNG Munchen 439; SNG ANS 1263; Franke-Hirmer 38; unsigned dies by the master engraver Euainetos, aF, rough, weight 3.738 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, Katane (Catania, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 410 B.C.; obverse Female charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to left crowning charioteer with wreath held in outstretched arms; KATANAIΩN in exergue; reverse AMENANOΣ, youthful head of river-god Amenanos left, diadem in hair, small bull's horn above forehead; fish above shrimp before, second fish behind; very rare; SOLD


Gela, Sicily, 420 - 405 B.C.

|Gela|, |Gela,| |Sicily,| |420| |-| |405| |B.C.||tetras|
Gela, named after the river Gela, was founded by colonists from Rhodos and Crete around 688 B.C. In 424 B.C., the Congress of Gela established a "Sicily for the Sicilians" platform and formed a league that pushed back the Athenian attempt to conquer the island. The city had a history of internal strife between its plebs and aristocrats. When the Carthaginians arrived in 311 BC, they easily captured the Gela with the help of its elites. In 282 B.C., Phintias of Agrigento ruthlessly destroyed Gela to crush its power forever. In Roman times it was only a small settlement.
SH76948. Bronze tetras, Calciati III p. 17, 32/1; Jenkins Gela 516; SNG ANS 115; SNG Cop 283; SNG Munchen 314; BMC Sicily, p. 73, 66; HGC 2 379 (S), gVF, nice green patina, well centered on a broad flan, light marks and corrosion, weight 3.408 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 90o, Gela mint, 420 - 405 B.C.; obverse bull standing left, head lowered and turned slightly facing, barley kernel over ΓΕΛAΣ above, three pellets in exergue; reverse horned head of beardless young river-god Gela right, no diadem, floating hair, barley kernel behind; scarce; SOLD


Armenian Kingdom, Tigranes II the Great, 95 - 55 B.C.

|Armenian| |Kingdom|, |Armenian| |Kingdom,| |Tigranes| |II| |the| |Great,| |95| |-| |55| |B.C.||AE| |18|
Tigranes was called "Tigranes the Great" by Plutarch. The "King of Kings" never appeared in public without having four kings attending him. At its height, Tigranes' empire extended from the Pontic Alps to Mesopotamia and from the Caspian to the Mediterranean. In 83 B.C., the Syrians offered him the crown and after conquering Phoenicia and Cilicia, he effectively ended the Seleucid Empire. His southern border reached as far as Akko-Ptolemais. The first Armenian ruler to issue coins, he adopted the Seleucid tradition and struck coins at Antioch and Damascus during his occupation of Syria from 83 to 69 B.C. In 66 B.C., Pompey advanced into Armenia with Tigranes' own son as an ally. Tigranes, now almost 75 years old, surrendered. Pompey treated him generously and returned part of his kingdom in return for 6,000 talents of silver. His unfaithful son was sent back to Rome as a prisoner. Tigranes continued to rule Armenia as an ally of Rome until his death in 55 B.C.
GB93607. Bronze AE 18, cf. Bedoukian CAA 95, Nercessian ACV 50, Kovacs 85, MDHRAC 85, aVF, tight flan, light corrosion, earthen encrustations, small edge split, weight 4.126 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Tigranocerta (near Diyarbakir, Turkey) mint, c. 57 B.C.; obverse bust right wearing Armenian tiara, five-pointed tiara ornamented with star between two eagles, top extends outside of dot circle; reverse Tyche seated right on rocks, turreted, palm frond in right hand, half-length figure of river-god Orontes swimming right at her feet below, BAΣIΛΕΩΣ downward on right, BAΣIΛΕIΩN / TIΓPANOY in two downward lines on left, TP monogram high inner right, A above head of Orontes; this type appears to have been struck at various weights and references identify it as various denominations, from the Errett Bishop Collection; SOLD







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REFERENCES|

Imhoof-Blumer, F. "Fluss- und Meergtter auf griechischen und rmischen Mnzen (Personifikationen der Gewsser)" in RSN 23 (1923), pp. 173-421.
Malloy, A. "The Danubian Celts" in Alex G. Malloy Auction Sale XLVI, June 24, 1997. NumisWiki webpage
Molinari, N.J. & N. Sisci. Potamikon: Sinews of Acheloios. A Comprehensive Catalog of the Bronze Coinage of the Man-Faced Bull, With Essays on Origin and Identity. (Oxford, 2016).

Catalog current as of Saturday, September 30, 2023.
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