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Octavian, Triumvir and Imperator, c. 38 B.C., Julius Caesar Reverse
In 38 B.C., Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus signed the Treaty of Tarentum extending the Second Triumvirate until 33 B.C.
On 17 January 38 B.C., Octavian married Livia while she was pregnant from her recently broken marriage. Octavian gained permission from the College of Pontiffs to wed her while she was still pregnant from another husband. Three months after the wedding she gave birth to her second son, Nero Claudius Drusus. The baby and his elder brother, the four-year-old Tiberius, lived in Octavian's household.
RR54917. Bronze sestertius or dupondius, SRCV I 1569, RPC I 620, Crawford 535/1, Sydenham 1335, BMCRR Gaul 106, aVF, scratches, weight 22.782 g, maximum diameter 33.6 mm, die axis 225o, Italian (Paestum?) mint, c. 38 B.C.; obverse CAESAR DIVI F, bare head of Octavian right; reverse DIVOS IVLIVS, wreathed head of Julius Caesar right; ex Heritage Numismatics, green patina; very scarce; SOLD
Roman Republic, Corn-Ear Cast Bronze Series, c. 216 B.C.
On 2 August 216 B.C., at the Battle of Cannae, Hannibal with a 40,000-man army defeated a Roman force of 70,000. Fortunately, the remnants of the Roman army at Canusium saved the city of Nola and southern Campania from occupation. Rome's apparent weakness, however, led many of Rome's Italian allies defect and other enemies to attack. Capua defected and Hannibal and the Carthaginian army wintered there. Gauls near Litana ambushed and almost completely wiped out a Roman force of 25,000. Philip V of Macedon seized this opportunity to invade Illyria and sent ambassadors to visit Hannibal in Italy. Unsure of how to deal with Hannibal's victories, Rome sent the historian Quintus Fabius Pictor to consult the Oracle in Delphi.SH76976. Aes grave (cast) quadrans, Vecchi ICC 98; Russo RBW 110 (ex. rare); Thurlow-Vecchi 66b; Crawford 40/1a; HGC 2 1732 (R1); SRCV I 585; Sydenham -, VF, weight 34.575 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, Sicilian mint, c. 216 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules left, wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress, three pellets below; reverse war galley prow left, barley ear above, three pellets below; very rare; SOLD
Sextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet, Executed 35 B.C., Janiform Head of Pompey the Great
The obverse inscription may read MGN (Syd. 1044), MAGN (Syd. 1044a), MAGNVS (Syd. 1044b), or MAGNV (Craw. 479/1, noted variant), all with MA ligate when the A is present.SH26686. Leaded bronze as, Sydenham 1044 - 1044b, BMCRR II Spain 95 - 103, Crawford 479/1, Cohen Pompey the Great 16, Sear CRI 336, RPC I 671, SRCV I 1394, F, nice green patina, little wear but an uneven weak strike, weight 22.770 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Sicilian mint, c. 43 - 36 B.C.; obverse laureate janiform head with the features of Pompey the Great, [MAGN] (or similar) above; reverse prow of galley right, PIVS above, IMP below; SOLD
Katane, Sicily, c. 186 - 70 B.C.
For rescuing their aged parents from an eruption of Mt. Etna, the Romans idolized the Katanean brothers as the embodiment of the Roman virtue pietas.GI76343. Bronze AE 21, Calciati III p. 98, 10; SNG ANS 1285; SNG Cop 196; SNG München 454; BMC Sicily p. 52, 72; HGC 2 626 (R2), VF/F, green patina, reverse weak, light scratches, porosity, weight 4.673 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 180o, Katane (Catania, Sicily, Italy) mint, Roman rule, c. 186 - 70 B.C.; obverse head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath, ΛAΣIO (magistrate) above, monogram (ΩΣI?) behind; reverse KATANΩN, the Katanean brothers, Amphinomos and Anapias, carrying their aged parents, saving them from an eruption of Mt. Etna; very rare; SOLD
Melita, Malta, c. 150 - 146 B.C.
Melite or Melita (present-day Mdina) Malta began as a Bronze Age settlement, which grew into the city Maleth under the Phoenicians, and became the administrative center of the island. The city fell to Rome in 218 B.C., and it remained part of the Roman and later the Byzantine Empire until 870 A.D., when it was destroyed by the Aghlabids. The city was then rebuilt and renamed Medina, giving rise to the present name Mdina. It remained Malta's capital city until 1530. Only a few vestiges of the Punic-Roman city have survived. The most substantial are the ruins of the Domvs Romana, an aristocratic town house, in which a number of well-preserved mosaics and statues have been found. Sparse remains of other buildings and parts of the city walls have been excavated, but no visible remains of the city's numerous temples, churches, and other public buildings survive.GI86525. Bronze AE 26, Calciati III p. 353, 7; SNG Cop VIII 463; SNG Dreer 607; Coleiro 3, F, red-black patina, reverse a little off center, light marks and corrosion, weight 12.228 g, maximum diameter 25.7 mm, die axis 0o, Melita (Mdina, Malta) mint, under Roman rule, c. 150 - 146 B.C.; obverse MEΛITAIΩN (clockwise on right), head of Isis (Coleiro says Astarte) left, wearing uraeus crown, composite of symbol of Tanit and caduceus in left field; reverse Osiris kneeling left on left knee, with four open wings, wearing double crown, short scepter in right hand, flail in left hand; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; very rare; SOLD
Tutere (Tudor), Umbria, Italy, 280 - 240 B.C.
Todi was founded by the ancient Italic people of the Umbri, in the 8th - 7th century BC, with the name of Tutere. The name means "border," it being the city located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his victory at the Trasimeno. Christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. Bishop St. Fortunatus became the patron saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the Gothic siege. In Lombard times, Todi was part of the Duchy of Spoleto.SH73969. Bronze hemiobol, HN Italy 37, Campania CNAI 2, SNG Cop 75, SNG ANS 105; BMC Italy p. 39, 1, F, well centered, pitted, flan crack, weight 3.364 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Tuder (Todi, Italy) mint, 280 - 240 B.C.; obverse bearded head of the satyr Silenus (Seilenos) right, wearing ivy wreath; reverse Umbrian: TVTEDE (downward on left, TVT top outward, EDE top inward), eagle standing left, wings spread; rare; SOLD
Panormus, Sicily, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Pyrrhus occupied Panormos in 276 B.C., taking it away from Carthage. After Pyrrhus departed Sicily, the Romans occupied Panormos in 254 or 253 B.C. Hasdrubal in 251 and Hamilcar in 247 - 245 B.C. attempted to retake the town but failed. Panormos prospered under Rome, assuming great importance in trade due to its location at the center of the Mediterranean Sea.SH68748. Bronze AE 13, Calciati p. 363, 195; Winterthur 1062, HGC 2 -, SNG Cop -, SNG ANS -, SNG Morcom -, BMC Sicily -, Choice VF, weight 1.113 g, maximum diameter 12.8 mm, die axis 0o, Panormos (Palermo) mint, Roman rule, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse bust of Demeter right, veiled and wreathed in grain; reverse two heads of grain, crescent above center, flanked by a pellet on each side; very rare; SOLD
Luceria, Apulia, Italy c. 217 - 212 B.C.
In 321 B.C., the Roman army was deceived into thinking Luceria was under siege by the Samnites. Hurrying to relieve their allies the army walked into an ambush and were defeated at the famous Battle of the Caudine Forks. The Samnites occupied Luceria but were thrown out after a revolt. The city sought Roman protection and in 320 B.C. was granted the status of Colonia Togata, which meant it was ruled by the Roman Senate. In order to strengthen the ties between the two cities, 2,500 Romans moved to Luceria. From then on, Luceria was known as a steadfast supporter of Rome.SH92202. Aes grave (cast) teruncias, Thurlow-Vecchi 283; Sydenham Aes Grave 140; Haeberlin pl. 71, 21; HN Italy 677c; Vecchi ICC 347; SNG Cop 652, F, dark green patina, minor roughness, weight 28.866 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, Luceria mint, c. 217 - 212 B.C.; obverse star of eight rays around a central pellet, all on a convex disk; reverse dolphin right, three pellets (mark of value) above, L below, all on a convex disk; ex CNG e-auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 51; ex CNG auction XXIV (9 Dec 1992), lot 120; ex Fred V. Fowler Collection; ex Stack's auction (1969), lot 288; SOLD
Thermae Himerenses, Sicily, Roman Rule, c. 252 - 133 B.C.
In 409 B.C., the Carthaginians under the command of Hannibal, conquered Himera, crucified three hundred of its leading men and obliterated the town. The site has been desolate ever since. The few surviving Greeks were settled by the Carthaginians eleven kilometers west of Himera at Thermae Himeraeae (Termini Imerese today). Thermae was taken by the Romans during the First Punic War. GB35580. Bronze AE 20, Calciati I p. 120, 20/1; SNG ANS 193; SNG Cop 324; SNG München 374; SNG Morcom 604; BMC Sicily p. 84, 7; HGC 2 1622 (R3); SGCV I 1114, Choice gVF, weight 6.905 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Thermai Himeraiai (Termini Imerese, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 252 - 133 B.C.; obverse bearded bust of Herakles right, wearing lion skin, club at shoulder; reverse ΘEPMITAN, turreted female figure standing left, wearing chiton and peplos, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; beautiful patina, ex CNG, much nicer than any of the 15 examples in Calciati!; very rare; SOLD
Melita (Mdina, Malta), Under Roman Rule, c. 160 - 140 B.C.
Uncia and quadrans from the same series are list in Calciati under Panormous. Munzen & Medaillen attributed it to Alaisa. RPC says Sardina and even Africa cannot be ruled out.GB63617. Bronze sextans, RPC I p. 180, 3; Calciati -; SNG ANS -, Fine, weight 4.883 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 0o, Melita(?) mint, obverse laureate head of Apollo (or Isis) left with three curly locks; reverse three heads of grain, Q (quaestor?) above, two pellets left; ex Munzen & Medaillen; extremely rare; SOLD
Burnett, A., M. Amandry and P.P. Ripollès. Roman Provincial Coinage I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). (London, 1992 and suppl.).
Calciati, R. Corpus Nummorum Siculorum. The Bronze Coinage. (Milan, 1983 - 1987).
Coleiro, E. "Maltese Coins of the Roman Period" in NC 1971.
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Lindgren, H. C. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints from the Lindgren Collection. (San Mateo, 1989).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Poole, R.S. ed. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Sicily. (London, 1876).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, The Millennium Edition, Volume One, The Republic and the The Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sutherland, C.H.V. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. I, From 39 BC to AD 69. (London, 1984).
Sear, D.R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 1: Italy - Sicily. (West Milford, NJ, 1981). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 1: Hispania-Sikelia. (Berlin, 1981). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain–Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Grèce 1, Collection Réna H. Evelpidis, Part 1: Italie. Sicile - Thrace. (Athens, 1970). (Italy, Sicily - Thrace). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part| 3: Bruttium - Sicily 1 (Abacaenum-Eryx). (New York, 1975). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part| 4: Sicily 2 (Galaria - Styella). (New York, 1977). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part| 5: Sicily 3 (Syracuse - Siceliotes). (New York, 1988).
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