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Persephone was the embodiment of the Earth's fertility, Queen of the Underworld, daughter of Demeter and Zeus and the consort of Hades.
Kroton, Bruttium, Italy, c. 300 - 250 B.C.
In 295 B.C., Kroton fell to the Syracusan tyrant Agathocles. When Pyrrhus invaded Italy in 280 B.C., it was still a considerable city, with twelve miles (19 km) of walls, but after the Pyrrhic War, half the town was deserted (Livy 24.3). What was left of its population submitted to Rome in 277 B.C. After the Battle of Cannae in the Second Punic War, Hannibal made it his winter quarters for three years and the city was not recaptured until 205 or 204 B.C. In 194 B.C., it became the site of a Roman colony. Little more is heard of it during the Republican and Imperial periods.GB92021. Bronze AE 18, SNG ANS 444; SNG Munich 1480; HN Italy 2234; BMC Italy p. 356, 117; Lindgren 339, aVF, green patina, porous, very nice for this rare type, weight 3.836 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, Kroton mint, c. 300 - 250 B.C.; obverse head of Persephone right, wreathed in grain; reverse three narrow crescents with horns outward, K-P-O around clockwise, one letter within each crescent; ex CNG e-auctions 233 (26 May 2010), lot 106 (est. $250, realized $270 plus fees); rare; $300.00 (Ä264.00)
Anazarbus, Cilicia, 114 - 115 A.D.
The torch is a symbol that can be related to either Artemis or Demeter. Although the goddess on the reverse is usually identified in references as Artemis, we believe it is Demeter. In year 132, this type was struck at Anazarbus with larger denominations depicting Trajan on the obverse, some with reverses depicting Trajan's sister Marciana, and others with reverses depicting her daughter, Trajan's niece, Matidia. Circulating alongside the other coins, these coins advertised the importance of Marciana and Matidia to the imperial family and suggested that they, similar to Demeter and her daughter Persephone, were essential to the prosperity of the empire. GB93846. Bronze hemiassaria, Ziegler 122 (Vs1/Rs2); RPC III 3375; BMC Lycaonia p. 31, 3; SNG BnF 2026; cf. SNG Levante 1380 (year 132); SNG Cop -; SNGvA -; SNG Righetti -, VF, nice dark green patina with highlighting earthen deposits, scratches on reverse, beveled obverse edge, weight 4.661 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 0o, Anazarbus (Anavarza, Turkey) mint, 114 - 115 A.D.; obverse KAICAPIA ANAZAP, veiled bust of Persephone right, grain ears and poppy before; reverse ET ΓΛP (year 133), veiled bust of Demeter right, wearing polos (resembling a pileus), flaming torch before; ex Agora Auctions sale 90 (3 Sep 2019), lot 38; ex Tom Buggey Collection; ex Saint Paul Antiques (London), auction 7 (11 Jun 17), lot 150; $130.00 (Ä114.40)
Syracuse, Sicily, Hieron II, c. 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then king of Syracuse, c. 270 - 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity. Syracuse became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense altar. The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the Mamertini, he eventually allied with Rome.GB88194. Bronze hemilitron, Calciati II p. 405, 199 R1 10/3 (same obv. die); BMC Sicily p. 220, 632; SNG Cop 871; SNG ANS 598 (Agathokles); HGC 2 1497 (R1); SNG MŁnchen -, F, dark brown patina, light scratches, weight 4.436 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 45o, Syracuse mint, c. 275 - 269/265 B.C.; obverse ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, head of Kore-Persephone left; reverse bull butting left, club over Σ (magistrate initial) above, IE (magistrate initials) in exergue; ex Moneta Numismatic Services; $40.00 (Ä35.20)