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Salome Alexandra (Shlomtzion), Queen Regent, 76 - 67 B.C.
On Aristobulus' death, Shalom Alexandra, his wife, liberated his brother Alexander Jannaeus, who had been held in prison. She married Alexander shortly after his accession. On his deathbed Alexander entrusted the government, not to his sons, but to his wife. "Alexander bequeathed the kingdom to his wife Alexandra, being convinced that the Jews would bow to her authority as they would to no other, because by her utter lack of his brutality and by her opposition to his crimes, she had won the affections of the populace." (Josephus, BJ. I:107) Shalom Alexandra was the only Jewish regnant queen and the last ruler of ancient Judaea to die as the ruler of an independent kingdom. Although she ruled, Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), the oldest son of Alexander Jannaeus and Shalom Alexandra, was made high priest and regarded as his father's heir. Hyrcanus II was made king upon her death in 67 B.C.