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Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)
Little needs to be said about Constantine the Great's New Rome, built on top of the old Greek city Byzantion. Coinage started in 326 and continued until the fall of the Roman Empire in 1453. Mintmarks: C, CON, CONS.
|indirectly saved from the Hun. In 452, captured and ransacked , , and other cities in Northern Italy. It seemed would soon attack itself, whose walls were weaker than some cities had already captured. Meanwhile, however, Marcian's Eastern Roman forces had taken the offensive across the Danube, attacking the breadbasket of the Hunnic Empire. The loss of food supply from Attila's own land, and a famine and plague in Italy, depleted Attila's forces, allowing the Western Roman Empire to bribe him into returning to his homeland. Back , threatened to invade the Eastern Empire and enslave the entirety of it. and Aspar ignored his threats. The Eastern Empire had already paid about six tons of gold, yet he threatened them. They reasoned that gold would be better spent building up armies. Attila's attack never came, as he died unexpectedly in 453, either from hemorrhaging or alcoholic suffocation, after celebrating a marriage to one of his many wives. Attila's tribal confederation empire fell apart within a year after his death. settled numerous tribes, formerly under , within Eastern Roman lands as (subject tribes which gave military service in exchange for various benefits).|