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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |Saturn||View Options:  |  |  |   

Saturn

Saturn was a major Roman god identified with the Greek deity Cronus, and the mythologies of the two gods are commonly mixed. Saturn had a temple on the Forum Romanum, which contained the Royal Treasury. Saturn is the namesake of both Saturn, the planet, and Saturday. In Roman mythology, when Jupiter ascended the throne of the Gods, Saturn fled to Rome and established the Golden Age, a time of perfect peace and harmony, which lasted as long as he reigned. In memory of the Golden Age, the Feast of Saturnalia was held every year at the Winter Solstice. Saturnalia was an occasion for celebration and visits to friends. Slaves and masters ate at the same table. No war could be declared. Executions were postponed. Homes were decorated with greenery. And it was a season for giving gifts, particularly wax candles, perhaps to signify the returning light after the solstice. Aspects of Saturnalia survive today in Christmas celebrations and carnival festivals around the world.


Roman Republic, M. Nonius Sufenas, 59 B.C.

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The reverse honors the praetor, Sextus Nonius Sufenas, nephew of Sulla, who initiated the victory games in 81 B.C.
SH60293. Silver denarius, SRCV I 377, Sydenham 885, Crawford 421/1, RSC I Nonia 1, EF, weight 3.758 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 59 B.C.; obverse head of Saturn right, harpa, conical stone and S C behind, SVFENAS before; reverse Roma on left seated left, Victory standing left behind crowns her with wreath in right and holds palm frond over shoulder in left, PRLVPF around, SEXNONI in exergue; ex Harlan Berk, ex Heritage Auctions; SOLD


Roman Republic, Anonymous ROMA Monogram Series, c. 211 - 210 B.C.

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In 211 B.C., Hannibal marched northwards on the city of Rome in a belated and unsuccessful effort to capture the city. Rome faced the danger of famine, caused by Hannibal's forces and the withdrawal of so many men from farming. The situation was only relieved by an urgent appeal by the Romans to the King of Egypt, Ptolemy IV, from whom grain was purchased at three times the usual price.
RR71033. Bronze semis, SRCV I 789, Crawford 84/5, Sydenham 190a, BMCRR Italy 193, VF, weight 16.745 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, die axis 315o, southeastern Italy mint, c. 211 - 210 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Saturn right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse prow right, S (mark of value) above, ROMA monogram right, ROMA below; scarce; SOLD


Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Q. Servilius Caepio, quaestors c. 100 B.C.

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This exceptional type was a joint issue of the Quaestor Urbanus (Caepio) and the Quaestor Ostiensis (Piso), produced for the purchase of grain by special decree of the Senate (Ad frumentum emundun, ex senatus consulto).
RR21649. Silver denarius, SRCV I 210, Crawford 330/1b, Sydenham 603a, RSC I Calpurnia 5a, Choice gVF, weight 3.852 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, obverse head of Saturn right, crescent, PISO , and harpa behind, CAEPIO over trident below, Q below chin; reverse the two quaestors seated left between two stalks of grain, AD FRV EMV EX S C in ex; some mint luster; SOLD


Roman Republic, Anonymous, Second Punic War, 211 - 206 B.C.

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Certificate of Authenticity issued by David R. Sear.

The certificate notes, "This exceptionally fine example of the semis, or half as, is anonymous and belongs to the initial phase of production following the reform of circa 211 BC. Crawford dates it to the half-decade 211- 206 BC. The obverse type of Saturn, father of Jupiter became standard on the semis denomination about 225 BC and at the same time the reverse type for all bronze denominations was standardized as the prow of a galley, the principal instrument of Rome's success against Carthage in the First Punic War."
RR84478. Bronze semis, McCabe Anonymous G4.Sm.1 (same dies); cf. Crawford 56/3; Sydenham 143a; BMCRR I Rome 229; SRCV I 766, almost EF with smooth dark patina, an exceptionally fine example of this early struck issue (grade by David Sear), weight 19.794 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 2nd Punic War, 211 - 206 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Saturn right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse galley prow right, S (mark of value) above, ROMA below, narrow tall curved prow stem; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; SOLD


Roman Republic, L. Appuleius Saturninus, 104 B.C.

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The use of Saturn on the reverse is an allusion to the moneyer's cognomen. Control marks for this type are a single Latin letter and one to four dots. Only one reverse die known for each control mark. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford
SH81724. Silver denarius, SRCV I 193, Crawford 317/3a, Sydenham 578, RSC IAppuleia 1, gVF, weight 3.864 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 104 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Roma left; reverse Saturn in a quadriga right, K below, L SATVRN in exergue; nice centering, gold and red toning on obverse; SOLD


Roman Republic, Spanish Imitative, c. Mid 2nd Century B.C.

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In his response to Michael Crawford's "Unofficial Imitations and Small Change under the Roman Republic," Leandre Villaronga identifies this type and others as Spanish issues, with southern Spanish find-spots as supporting evidence. Most likely these were officially sanctioned issues, or at least made without any official objection, given the uniformity of styles and reasonable weight.
RR65221. Bronze semis, refer to Leandre Villaronga's response on Spanish types to Crawford Imitations in AIIN 29, VF, weight 9.341 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 90o, unofficial Hispania mint, c. mid 2nd century B.C.; obverse laureate head of Saturn right, S behind; reverse prow right, ROMA below, S above; SOLD


Roman Republic, L. & C. Memmius L.f. Galeria, 87 B.C.

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This issue was struck by two brothers, Lucius and Gaius, sons of Lucius Memmius Galeria, moneyer in 106 B.C., whose type they imitate. EX SC indicates this type was struck by special decree of the Senate.
RR13691. Silver denarius, Crawford 349/1, Sydenham 712, RSC I Memmia 8, SRCV I 262, RBW Collection 1328 var. (control), BMCRR I Rome 2421 ff. var. (various controls), VF, weight 3.620 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 87 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Saturn left, harpa behind, EXSC (ex Senatus Consulto) below, uncertain control letter below chin; reverse Venus in a slow biga walking right, nude, reins in both hands and long scepter in left hand, cupid flying left above holding open wreath, LCMEMIESLF / GAL in exergue; SOLD


Roman Republic, Caps of the Dioscuri Series, c. 169 - 158 B.C.

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This is the first example of this Semis type handled by Forum. Coin Archives lists only one specimen offered in auctions in the past decade.
RR85295. Bronze semis, Russo RBW 767 (very rare), Crawford 181/2, Sydenham 294a, SRCV I 827, aF, turquoise patina, weight 14.550 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 169 - 158 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Saturn right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse galley prow right, pilei (caps) of the Dioscuri above, S (mark of value) before, ROMA below; very rare; SOLD


Roman Republic, L. Appuleius Saturninus, 104 B.C.

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The use of Saturn on the reverse is an allusion to the moneyer's cognomen. Control marks for this type are a single Latin letter and one to four dots. Only one reverse die known for each control mark. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford
RR36296. Silver denarius, SRCV I 193, Crawford 317/3a, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1, nice VF, weight 3.862 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 104 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Roma left; reverse Saturn in a quadriga right, D and two dots above, LSATVRN in exergue; SOLD


Roman Republic, L. Appuleius Saturninus, 104 B.C.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RR50640. Silver denarius, Crawford 317/2, Sydenham 580, RSC I Appuleia 3, SRCV I 193, VF, weight 3.905 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 104 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Roma left; reverse Saturn in quadriga right, harpa in right, reins in left, B above, L SATVRN below; SOLD




  




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Saturn