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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Gods, Non-Olympian ▸ BaalView Options:  |  |  | 

Baal

Ba'al simply means 'Lord' in Phoenician and was used to describe many local gods. At first the name Ba'al was used by the Jews for their God, but as the struggle between religions developed, the name Ba'al was given up in Judaism. Over time Ba'al became synonymous with Beelzebub.


Persian Empire, Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, c. 361 - 334 B.C.

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Mazaios was the Persian satrap of Cilicia beginning about 361 BC and in about 345 B.C. he was also made satrap of Transeuphratesia (which included Syria and Judaea). In 331 BC, Mazaios was defeated by Alexander the Great at the Battle of Gaugamela, after which he fled to Babylon. Later that year Mazaios surrendered Babylon, the capital of the Persian Empire, to Alexander. For surrendering without a fight, Alexander appointed Mazaios governor of Babylon. He died in 328 B.C.
GS87944. Silver stater, Casabonne Series 4, Group B; SNG BnF 359; SNG Levante 113; SNGvA 5961; SNG Cop 314; BMC Lycaonia p. 170, 48;, aVF, toned, bumps, marks, slight flan bend, reverse off center, weight 10.865 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 90o, Cilicia, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, 361 - 334 B.C.; obverse Baaltars seated left on throne, nude to waist, eagle on lotus tipped scepter in right hand, himation over left arm and around hips and legs; grain ear and grape bunch above Aramaic N left, Aramaic inscription on right: B'LTRZ, Aramaic M below throne; reverse Aramaic legend: MZDI ZI 'L 'BRNH RAWHLK' (Mazaios governor of Transeuphrates and Cilicia), lion left with head facing, attacking bull which kneels right; two lines of crenelated city walls below each with four towers one above the other; $375.00 (Ä318.75)


Arados, Phoenicia, Uncertain King, c. 400 - 384 B.C.

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Early coins of Arados have the Aramaic letters mem aleph (read from right to left) above the galley, abbreviating Melech Arad (meaning King of Arados), sometimes followed by the king's initial, and sometimes by the Phoenician regnal year date.
GS87352. Silver stater, Elayi-Elayi Arwad group III.2.1; HGC 10, 32 (R1), VF, typical compact flan, bumps and marks, weight 10.308 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 270o, Arados (Arwad, Syria) mint, c. 400 - 384 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Ba'al Arwad right, with profile eye; reverse galley right, figure of Pataikos right on prow, row of shields on bulwark, Phoenician letters mem aleph (abbreviating Melech Arad - King of Arados) from right to left above, three waves below; ex CNG e-auction 424 (11 Jul 2018), lot 252; rare; $235.00 (Ä199.75)


Ziz (Panormos), Punic Sicily, c. 405 - 380 B.C.

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Some authorities have identified the male head on the obverse as Apollo. Indeed, on some examples the head does resemble other depictions of the youthful sun god, but on other examples the god is horned. On this coin the head seems to better resemble traditional depictions of Herakles or Baal. The type usually has the Punic ethnic above the bull. Sometimes it is below. Most likely it should be above on this coin but is merely unstruck.
GS79961. Silver obol, cf. Jenkins Punic (SNR 50) 14; BMC Sicily p. 249, 27; SNG ANS 551; SGCV I 889 (all w/ Punic ethnic "sys" above bull), aVF, toned, reverse slightly off center, weight 0.547 g, maximum diameter 9.1 mm, die axis 45o, Ziz (Palermo, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 405 - 380 B.C.; obverse male head left; reverse man-faced bull advancing left, head turned facing; $115.00 (Ä97.75)







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Catalog current as of Wednesday, January 23, 2019.
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Baal