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Castile and Leon, Spain, Alfonso XI the Avenger, 1312 - 1350 A.D.
Alfonso's leadership skills included the unhesitating execution of possible opponents without any form of trial. He extended his kingdom to the Strait of Gibraltar after the important victory at the Battle of Río Salado against the Marinid Dynasty in 1340 and the conquest of the Kingdom of Algeciras in 1344. He then redirected all his Reconquista efforts to fighting the Moorish king of Granada. He openly neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal, and indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman, who bore him ten children. It may be that his early death, during the Great Plague of 1350, at the Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with his son Peter. After Alfonso's death, his widow Maria had Eleanor arrested and later killed.ME47148. Billon noven, Burgos Medieval 315, aVF, toned, weight 0.754 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 315o, Seville mint, 1312 - 1350 A.D.; obverse +A+L REX CASTELL+E, three-towered castle, S below, within square frame; reverse .+. E+T LE+GIO+NIS++, lion passant left within square frame; SOLD
Islamic, Umayyads of Spain, Abd al-Rahman III ibn Muhammad, 316 - 350 AH, 929 - 961 A.D.
IS47291. Silver dirham, Mitchiner WOI 322, Album 350, VF, weight 3.159 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 180o, al-Andalus (Cordoba) mint, 331 AH, 942 - 943 A.D.; obverse Arabic inscriptions: "In the name of Allah this Dirhem was minted in al-Andalus in the year 331" (Bismillah) in around; Kalima and last line "fortunate" (or similar) in center; reverse Arabic inscriptions: Sura 9, Verse 3 (or similar) around; "The Imam the Defender of the faith of Allah 'Abd er-Rahman Commander of the Faithful" in center; SOLD
Spain, Philip III, 1578 - 1621
Cob 2 reales circulated throughout the New World. In the 13 Colonies, they were sometimes known as "two bits," a denomination which became our quarter. The term is still used.WO60233. Silver 2 reales, F, weight 6.278 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 90o, uncertain Spanish Colonial America mint, c. 1620; obverse PHILIPVS III D G HISPANIARVM (or similar), arms of Spain, •II• at right; reverse INDIARVM ET REX (or similar), Jerusalem Cross with two castles and two lions in quarters, all inside a quatrefoil design; SOLD
Castile and Leon, Spain, Henry III, 1390 - 1406
Known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Sick, despite his nickname, Henry III engaged in a vigorous foreign policy and maneuvers, pacified the nobility, and restored royal power. His fleet won several victories against the English and destroyed a pirate base in North Africa. Henry began the colonization of the Canary Islands. He deflected a Portuguese invasion with a counterattack; then signed a peace treaty with Juan I of Portugal. Due to his poor health, he delegated part of his power to his brother Ferdinand I of Aragon in the later part of his reign. Henry died while preparing a campaign against the Emirate of Granada.ME67124. Billon blanca nuevas, Fitzwilliam Museum PG.1987; cf. Burgos Medieval 553 (LEGIONI) and 558 (half blanca), Heiss 27 (half blanca), Valdés XV 5.1 (LEGIONES), VF, weight 1.795 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 225o, Seville mint, 1390 - 1406; obverse + ENRICVS REX CASTE, castle, S (mint mark) below, all within hexalobe; reverse + ENRICVS REX LEGIO, rampant lion left, within hexalobe; SOLD
Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, Ferdinand III the Catholic, 1504 - 1516
Ferdinand III the Catholic in Naples, he is better known as Ferdinand II of Aragon. Hi marriage to Isabel of Castile would unite Spain and they famously financed Columbus' explorations. His defeat of Granada expunged the last Islamic state on Spanish soil, ending the centuries-long Reconquista. He also forced the conversion of Muslims and Jews to Catholicism, established the Spanish Inquisition, and destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone, burning them.ME66326. Bronze sestino, MIR Napoli 120, PIR 7, F, weight 1.681 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 45o, Naples mint, 1504 - 1516; obverse + LETICIA POPVLI, crowned large F, flanked by two triangles with concave sides; reverse * IVSTVS REX, cross potent; SOLD
Lot of 7 Billon Denaros of Alfonso VIII, Kingdom of Toledo, 1158 - 1214
Alfonso VIII, called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile and King of Toledo. He is best remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders. In the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, they broke the power of the Almohads, an event which marked the arrival of a tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula. His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection. This type was struck through the reign of Alfonso XLT55609. Billon Lot, 7 Billon Denaros, Cayon and Castan 987 corr. (misattributed to Alfonso I of Aragon), all aF or better, Toledo mint, obverse HNFVS REX, bare head left; reverse TOLLETH, Cross pattée; stars in second and fourth quarters; actual coins in the photograph; as is, no returns; SOLD
Kingdom of Valencia, Corona d'Aragón, Jaime I el Conquistador, 1238 - 1276
The Crown of Aragon was union of multiple titles and states all ruled the King of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was only a small part of the larger Crown of Aragon, which the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, controlled a large portion of the eastern Spain and southeastern France, and possessions stretching across the Mediterranean as far as Greece. The realms of the Crown were not united politically as a single country but shared the same king.ME53634. Billon denaro, Burgos Medieval 1328, Crusafont 316, Cayon and Castan 1870, VF, toned, weight 0.965 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 45o, Valencia mint, obverse IACOBVS • REX, crowned head left; reverse + VALENCIE, tree surmounted by cross pattée; uneven strike; SOLD
Spain, La Reconquista, Anonymous Christian, Imitative of Almohad (Muwahhid) Caliphate Dirham, 13th - 14th Century
This Christian imitative type can be distinguished from the Muwahhid Islamic dirham prototype by broader flans and degenerate calligraphy. They were struck in good silver and were accepted in European trade alongside Islamic coins until forbidden by the Pope. In the Islamic world they were rejected as crude counterfeits.ME54446. Silver millares, Album 498, Mitchiner WOI 528 - 532; weight 1.422 g, 15.6 x 15.7 mm, VF, obverse blundered Arabic script in three lines: There is no god but Allah, all power belongs to Allah, Allah is in power (or similar); reverse blundered Arabic script in three lines: Allah is our god, Muhammad is our messenger, Madi is our guide (or similar); SOLD
Spain, Felipe III, 1621 - 1665
The Standard Catalog of World Coins: Spain, Portugal and the New World, notes this type was machine struck beginning in 1621.WO55825. Silver KM Spain 93.2, aVF, weight 6.374 g, maximum diameter 26.9 mm, Toledo mint, c. 1621 - 1635; obverse crowned Spanish shield, annulet / T / P (mint mark) left. •II (value mark) right; reverse HISPANIA, Castile and Leon coat-of-arms within angled octolobe; SOLD
Castile and Leon, Spain, Alfonso X, 1252 - 1284 A.D.
ME49592. Billon denaro, Valdés p. 217, 199.6-a; Burgos 181, aVF, weight 0.801 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 0o, 1263 A.D.; obverse ALF/ONSVS / REX CAS/TELLE E/T LEGIO/NIS, legend in six lines; reverse long cross, castles and lions in quarters, six pointed star above castle in first quarter; SOLD
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Burgos F., et al. Catalogo General de la Moneda Medieval Hispano-Cristiana. (Madrid, 1980).
Calico, F., X. Calico & J. Trigo. Numismatica Española Catalogo des las Acuna. (Barcelona, 2001).
Cayon, J.R. & C. Castan. Las monedas Españolas desde Don Pelayo a Juan Carlos. I anos 718 A 1979. (Madrid, 1998).
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Mitchiner, M. Oriental Coins and Their Values Volume One: The World of Islam. (London, 1977).
Valdés, A. Emisiones monetarias Leonesas y castellanas de la Edad Media: Organizacion, economia tipos y fuentes. (Madrid, 2010).
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