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Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. It was during Charles reign that Spain conquered the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of Peru, and then extended its control across much of South and Central America. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage was the first circumnavigation of the Earth. He retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, and the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century. Charles was only 54 when he retired, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58. Charles' motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.SH66322. Bronze cavallo, MIR Napoli 156, VF, weight 1.215 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 90o, Naples mint, obverse PLVS : VLTRA, the Pillars of Hercules, banner over trefoil in center, crown above; reverse REX : IVSTVS, cross potent; $75.00 (€69.00)
Spain, Alfonso XIII, 1886 - 1931, 20 Pesetas, 1896 (1962) Official Restrike
Restruck by the Spanish Mint in 1962 using original 1896 dies.SH86345. Gold 20 Pesetas, SCWC KM 709, Friedberg 348R, UNC, weight 6.449 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, Madrid mint, 1896 (1962) official restrike; obverse ALFONSO XIII POR LA G. DE DIOS (by the grace of God), bare-headed young boy's head right, *1896*, the tiny six-pointed star on left of date marked with incuse 19, and on right 62, tiny BM under bust; reverse REY CONSTL. DE ESPAÑA (Constitutional King of Spain), coat of arms of Spain, 20 PESETAS below, date flanked by tiny MP on left an M on right; SOLD
Netherlands, Philip II of Spain, Lord of the 17 Provinces, Resistance Against the Dutch Rebels, 1575
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, and Naples and Sicily, as well as Duke of Milan, and lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. During his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554-58), he was also King of England and Ireland from 1555. His empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippine Islands. The expression "The Empire on which the sun never sets" was coined to reflect the extent of his possessions. Philip's finances were troubled by state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596. His rule in the Netherlands faced many difficulties, including open warfare beginning in 1568. In 1572 an exiled member of the Dutch aristocracy, William the Silent (Prince of Orange), invaded the Netherlands with a Protestant army. The Dutch Republic was created by a declaration of independence in 1581. The war, however, known as the Eighty Years' War, only came to an end in 1648, when Spain finally recognized the Dutch Republic as independent.WO73149. Bronze jeton, Dugniolle II 2656, Van Loon I 212, EF, weight 4.985 g, maximum diameter 28.3 mm, die axis 225o, 1575; obverse IN ADVERSIS CONSTANS (steady in adversity), helmeted and armed Dutch heroine, standing on a rock in a stormy sea, clinging to a pillar, behind the pillar a resting lion; reverse GECTO / IRS POVR / LE BVREAV / DES FINAN / DV ROY (jeton to the finance office of the king) / 1575; SOLD
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