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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |Sol||View Options:  |  |  | 

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.

Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

|Severus| |Alexander|, |Severus| |Alexander,| |13| |March| |222| |-| |March| |235| |A.D.||denarius|NEW
TR P abbreviates Tribunicia Potestate, the tribunician power, the power to veto legislation. In Roman coin legends the abbreviation TR P is often followed by a Roman numeral indicating the number of times the tribunitian power has been held. Every emperor claimed the tribunician power from the moment of accession. Up to Nerva the tribunician power was renewed on the anniversary of its original conferment. From Antoninus Pius on it seems to have been renewed on 10 December, the day on which elected tribunes entered office. It is still unclear (a) what system of renewal was in force from Trajan to Antoninus Pius and (b) whether at some point in the third century the tribunician day was moved from 10 December to 1 January.
SH112502. Silver denarius, RIC IV 109; RSC III 411a; BMCRE VI p. 195, 807; SRCV II 7913; Hunter III -, Choice EF, well centered and struck, flow lines, edge crack, mild die wear, weight 2.475 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 231 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse P M TR P X COS III P P, Sol standing slightly left, head left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Cotiaeum, Phrygia, c. 253 - 268 A.D.

|Other| |Phrygia|, |Cotiaeum,| |Phrygia,| |c.| |253| |-| |268| |A.D.||diassarion|
The image of Demos, the personification of the People, was used on ancient coinage as early as the 5th century B.C. In Roman times, many towns under Roman domination struck pseudo-autonomous coinage depicting either the bust or head of Demos, or showed him standing with the Emperor, Boule (the city council), or the Demos of another city.
RP112281. Bronze diassarion, BMC Phrygia p. 162, 13; SNGvA 3774; SNG Mnchen 315; SNG Cop -, VF, dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 12.431 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 0o, Kotiaeion (Ktahya, Turkey) mint, time of Gallienus, c. 253 - 268 A.D.; obverse ΔHMOC (Demos) KOTIAEΩN, diademed bust of the Demos to right, slight drapery over far shoulder; reverse EΠI Π AIΛ ΔHMHTPIANOV IΠΠI, AP-X across fields (under the authority of P. Aelius Demetrius, Archon, HMH ligate), Sol standing in facing spread quadriga, head left, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe in left hand, no star and crescent below horses, KOTIAEΩN (ΩN ligate) in exergue; rare; $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Probus started as a simple soldier but advanced to general and was declared emperor after the death of Tacitus. Florian's murder left him as undisputed ruler. His leadership brought peace and prosperity but he was murdered by mutinous soldiers, enraged at being employed on public building projects.
RA111887. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 862, Cohen VI 655, SRCV III -, Hunter IV 303 var. (2nd officina), VF, much silvering remaining, weight 3.013 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, 277 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate bust left in consular robe, eagle-tipped scepter in right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand commanding sunrise, whip in left hand, KAΔ in exergue; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00


Romano-Gallic Empire, Victorinus, Summer to November 268 - mid 271 A.D.

|Victorinus|, |Romano-Gallic| |Empire,| |Victorinus,| |Summer| |to| |November| |268| |-| |mid| |271| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RA112588. Billon antoninianus, Mairat 582, RIC V-2 114, Schulzki AGK 9b, Cohen VI 49, Elmer 683, Cunetio 2534, SRCV III 11170, Hunter IV 7, VF, edge cracks and chips, die wear, rev. off center, weight 2.543 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, issue 3, phase 2, late 269 - mid 271 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse INVICTVS, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, star left; from the Collection of Dr. Jregen Buschek; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., Struck by Archon, Dokimos, or Seleukos I

|Macedonian| |Kingdom|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Philip| |III| |Arrhidaeus| |and| |Alexander| |IV,| |323| |-| |317| |B.C.,| |Struck| |by| |Archon,| |Dokimos,| |or| |Seleukos| |I||stater|
This coin was struck under one of the Macedonian satraps in Babylon: Archon, Dokimos, or Seleukos I. Perdiccas suspected Archon of colluding in the theft of Alexander's corpse and, in 321 B.C., sent Dokimos to replace him. Archon was defeated and died from battle wounds. Seleucus, made satrap by Perdiccas' rival Antipater, arrived in Babylon in October or November 320 B.C. and defeated Dokimos.
SH54774. Gold stater, Price P203, Mller Alexander P116, aEF, weight 8.564 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 90o, Mesopotamia, Babylon (Hillah, Iraq) mint, c. 323 - 317 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with Griffin; reverse BAΣIΛΕΩΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, facing head of Helios below left, [KY] below right; Struck under Archon, Dokimos, or Seleukos I, circa 323-318/7 BC.; SOLD


Athens, Attica, Greece, c. 138 - 137 B.C., New Style Tetradrachm

|Athens|, |Athens,| |Attica,| |Greece,| |c.| |138| |-| |137| |B.C.,| |New| |Style| |Tetradrachm||tetradrachm|
"New style" tetradrachms were struck by Athens as a semi-autonomous city under Roman rule. Hellenic style replaces the archaic "old-style." The owl is surrounded by magistrates' names and symbols. The letter on the amphora may indicate the month of production. Letters below may indicate the source of the silver. In 1961, Margaret Thompson completed her brilliant study, "The New Style Coinage of Athens." At that time, she estimated there were fewer than 8000 new style tetradrachms "above ground." Thompson catalog numbers indicate the obverse die. Reverses for each obverse are indicated by a letter. For this obverse die, Thompson does not record a reverse with these control letters.
SH77461. Silver tetradrachm, Thompson p. 98, 290a (but obv. die 291); Svoronos Athens pl. 40, 2; SNG Cop 129 ff. var. (controls); BMC Attica p. 42, 352 ff. var. (same), gVF, light corrosion, light marks, weight 16.588 g, maximum diameter 32.5 mm, die axis 0o, Athens mint, c. 138 - 137 B.C.; obverse head of Athena Parthenos right, wearing crested helmet; reverse owl stands right on amphora, A-ΘΕ across upper field divided by head, ΓΛ/AY (magistrate Glaukos) over smaller ΣΩ (control or third magistrate) left, EXE (magistrate Echekrates) over bust of Helios right, B (month) on Amphora, all within olive wreath; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 233 (6 Oct 2015), lot 1451; SOLD


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |Constantine| |the| |Great,| |Early| |307| |-| |22| |May| |337| |A.D.||follis|
The name and the image of the sun god were frequently displayed on the coins of Rome. Apollo, in particular, was the object of homage in those dreadful times when the spread of plague depopulated the empire. But in the period when paganism was falling to the spread of Christianity, the emperors invoked the sun god Sol more than ever. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Saint Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
SH28350. Billon follis, RIC VII Arles -, gVF, weight 3.553 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Constantia-Arelatum (Arles, France) mint, 315 - 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate consular bust left, globe in right and eagle-tipped scepter in left; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, S F at sides, SARL in exergue; extremely rare; SOLD


Roman Republic, L. Mussidius Longus, 42 B.C.

|after| |50| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |L.| |Mussidius| |Longus,| |42| |B.C.||denarius|
The platform depicted still exists on the north side of the Forum.
SH28129. Silver denarius, RSC I Mussidia 7, Sydenham 1094, Crawford 494/43, SRCV I 495, EF, toned, nice style, weight 3.868 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 42 B.C; obverse radiate and draped bust of Sol facing slightly right; reverse L MVSSIDIVS LONGVS above platform, inscribed CLOACIN, on which two statues of Venus Cloacina; ex CNG; scarce; SOLD


Macrianus, Fall or Winter 260 - Early 261 A.D.

|Macrianus|, |Macrianus,| |Fall| |or| |Winter| |260| |-| |Early| |261| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RA26604. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1741, RSC IV 12, RIC V-2 12 (R2), Hunter 8, SRCV III 10809, Choice VF, full circle centering, original hoard toning, weight 4.531 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, fall/winter 260 - early 261 A.D.; obverse IMP C FVL MACRIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOL INVICTO, Sol standing left, nude but for radiate crown and cloak on left shoulder, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left; rare; SOLD


Quietus, Fall or Winter 260 - Late 261 A.D.

|Quietus|, |Quietus,| |Fall| |or| |Winter| |260| |-| |Late| |261| |A.D.||antoninianus|
After the Sasanians captured Valerian, the legion commander Macrianus Senior had his sons Macrianus Junior and Quietus declared emperors. The new rulers drove the Persians out of Antioch but were defeated by Gallienus' legions. Quietus was murdered by the populace of Emesa to avoid siege by Gallienus' forces.
SH27147. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1741f, RIC V-2 10, RSC IV 12, SRCV III 10829, Hunter IV 4 var. (star), VF, pitting, weight 3.694 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Syrian mint, 1st emission; obverse IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse SOL INVICTO, Sol standing slightly left, head left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder and arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left; rare; SOLD







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