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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |Sol||View Options:  |  |  | 

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.

Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |Constantine| |the| |Great,| |Early| |307| |-| |22| |May| |337| |A.D.||follis|NEW
In 317, Licinius recognized Constantine I as senior emperor and executed Valerius Valens.
RL94854. Billon follis, Hunter V 208 (also 3rd officina), RIC VII Rome 78 (R2), SRCV IV 16102, Cohen VII 536, Choice gVF, attractive desert patina with red earthen highlighting, weight 3.230 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, 317 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, A left, RT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $110.00 (90.20)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |Constantine| |the| |Great,| |Early| |307| |-| |22| |May| |337| |A.D.||follis|
In 317, Licinius recognized Constantine I as senior emperor and executed Valerius Valens.
RL94847. Billon follis, Hunter V 206 (also 1st officina), RIC VII Rome 78 (R1), SRCV IV 16102, Cohen VII 536, Choice VF, attractive desert patina, well centered, reverse flatly struck, weight 3.150 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 225o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 317 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, A left, RP in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $100.00 (82.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |Constantine| |the| |Great,| |Early| |307| |-| |22| |May| |337| |A.D.||follis|NEW
On 8 October 314, Constantine the Great defeated Licinius in the Battle of Cibalae, near Colonia Aurelia Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius lost all of the Balkans except for Thrace and fled to Sirmium. Peace negotiations were attempted, but were ultimately unsuccessful.
RL94855. Billon follis, Hunter V 181 (also 4th officina), RIC VII Rome 19, SRCV IV 16096, Cohen VII 536, VF, black patina with attractive desert highlights, reverse slightly off center part of legend off flan, weight 3.943 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R - F flanking at sides, R*Q in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $100.00 (82.00)


Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
In 295, Galerius, caesar in the Balkans, was dispatched to Egypt to fight against the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos.
RL98417. Billon antoninianus, Bastien 642 (17 spec.), SRCV IV 14300, RIC V-II Lugdunum 684 var. (no cuirass), Cohen VII 155 var. (same), Hunter V - (p. cxcv), gVF, well centered, much silvering, green encrustations, areas of light corrosion, weight 4.84 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, as caesar, 294 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS NOB C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVGG, Sol standing slightly left, radiate head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding sunrise, whip in left hand, B in exergue; scarce; $90.00 (73.80)


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the late Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274, Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a re-foundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol, a revival of the cult of Elagabalus, or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 A.D. and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RT97848. Billon follis, Hunter V 110 (also 8th officina), RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, VF, well centered, porous, some pitting, weight 4.614 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 8th officina Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in left hand, H left, star right, ANT in exergue; from a Norwegian collection; $70.00 (57.40)


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
The name and the image of the sun god were frequently displayed on the coins of Rome. Apollo, in particular, was the object of homage in those dreadful times when the spread of plague depopulated the empire. But in the period when paganism was falling to the spread of Christianity, the emperors invoked the sun god Sol more than ever. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Saint Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RL94861. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, Hunter V 106 var. (1st officina), aVF, desert patina, tight oval flan, weight 3.679 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 0o, 10th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol fully draped standing facing, head left, raising right hand, head of Serapis in left hand, I left, * right, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 (41.00)


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the late Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274, Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a re-foundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol, a revival of the cult of Elagabalus, or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 A.D. and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RL93197. Billon follis, Hunter V 106 (also 1st officina), RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, F/aF, porous, spots of encrustation, parts of legends weak, weight 3.669 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in left hand, A left, star right, ANT in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $50.00 (41.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |Constantine| |the| |Great,| |Early| |307| |-| |22| |May| |337| |A.D.||reduced| |follis|
On 8 October 314, Constantine the Great defeated Licinius in the Battle of Cibalae, near Colonia Aurelia Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius lost all of the Balkans except for Thrace and fled to Sirmium. Peace negotiations were initiated, but unsuccessful.
RL93357. Billon reduced follis, RIC VII Rome 19, SRCV IV 16096, Cohen VII 536, cf. Hunter V 179 - 181 (various officinae), VF, spots of green verdigris, part of reverse legend off flan, weight 3.374 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R - F flanking at sides, R*[...] in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $45.00 (36.90)







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