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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |Sol||View Options:  |  |  | 

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.

Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |Constantine| |the| |Great,| |Early| |307| |-| |22| |May| |337| |A.D.||follis|
In 317, Licinius recognized Constantine I as senior emperor and executed Valerius Valens.
RL94847. Billon follis, Hunter V 206 (also 1st officina), RIC VII Rome 78 (R1), SRCV IV 16102, Cohen VII 536, Choice VF, attractive desert patina, well centered, reverse flatly struck, weight 3.150 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 225o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 317 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, A left, RP in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
 


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

|Severus| |Alexander|, |Severus| |Alexander,| |13| |March| |222| |-| |March| |235| |A.D.||as|
Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after his cousin Elagabalus was murdered. He was dominated by his mother, but his reign brought economic prosperity and military success against the barbarians. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered him and his mother.
RB94231. Copper as, RIC IV 530, Cohen IV 431, BMCRE VI 860, SRCV II 8088, Hunter III -, F, well centered, dark brown tone with highlighting earthen deposits, scratches, scrapes, spots of corrosion, weight 9.578 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 232 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P XI COS III P P (high priest, holder of tribunitian power 11 years, consul 3 times, father of the country), Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) across fields; this is the first specimen of this type handled by FORVM; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
The name and the image of the sun god were frequently displayed on the coins of Rome. Apollo, in particular, was the object of homage in those dreadful times when the spread of plague depopulated the empire. But in the period when paganism was falling to the spread of Christianity, the emperors invoked the sun god Sol more than ever. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Saint Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RL94861. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, Hunter V 106 var. (1st officina), aVF, desert patina, tight oval flan, weight 3.679 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 0o, 10th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol fully draped standing facing, head left, raising right hand, head of Serapis in left hand, I left, * right, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00
 


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the late Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274, Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a re-foundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol, a revival of the cult of Elagabalus, or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 A.D. and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RL93197. Billon follis, Hunter V 106 (also 1st officina), RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, F/aF, porous, spots of encrustation, parts of legends weak, weight 3.669 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in left hand, A left, star right, ANT in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00
 


Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.

|Licinius| |I|, |Licinius| |I,| |11| |November| |308| |-| |18| |September| |324| |A.D.||follis|
A footnote in RIC identifies this reverse legend break for officina S and T, but not for P (prima or first) officina. This coin appears to be the same reverse legend variety for the first officina.
RL93206. Billon follis, Hunter V 40 (also 3rd officina), RIC VII Rome 23, SRCV IV 15301, Cohen VII 163, VF, brown patina with thin green deposits, broad flan, small edge crack, remnants of pre-strike casting sprues, weight 3.161 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R - F across fields, R*T in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

|Constantine| |the| |Great|, |Constantine| |the| |Great,| |Early| |307| |-| |22| |May| |337| |A.D.||follis|
In 317, Licinius recognized Constantine I as senior emperor and executed Valerius Valens.
RL95858. Billon follis, RIC VII Rome 78, SRCV IV 16102, Cohen VII 536, F, nice blue and green deposits, well centered on uneven flan, scratches, weight 2.981 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, 317 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, A left, RT in exergue; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00
 







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