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Islamic, Ottoman Empire, Tripolitania, Mahmud II, 1808 - 1839
Tripoli fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1551 and remained in their hands until it was occupied by the Italians in 1911. Under Ottoman rule, Barbary pirates from North Africa demanded tribute, and if refused, captured ships and cargo, enslaved and ransomed crew members, and even raided cities across the Mediterranean Sea. In the first Barbary War, Thomas Jefferson sent a US Naval fleet which bombarded numerous fortified cities in present-day Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, ultimately extracting concessions of safe conduct from the Barbary states. Encouraged by Great Britain, piracy resumed during the War of 1812. In 1815, James Madison dispatched military forces against the Barbary states. Lasting only 3 days, the Second Barbary War ended further tributes by the US and significantly reduced piracy in the region. This coin was struck under the local Pasha Yusuf Pasha Qaramanli (ruled Tripolitania, 1796 - 1833).IS97944. Billon 20 para, SCWC Libya KM168 (type B, with flower, without stars), Jem Sultan -, aMS, near full silvering, some weakness in center, weight 5.133 g, maximum diameter 29.2 mm, die axis 0o, Tarabulus Gharb (Tripoli, Libya) mint, third standard, 1822 A.D.; obverse Arabic tungra, straight based: Mahmud, Lord, son of Abdul Hamid, the Ever Victorious; flower upper right; Arabic inscription in three lines below: struck in / Tripoli of the West / 1223 (accession year), boarder of beads outside of a linear circle; reverse Arabic inscription in four lines: Sultan of the two lands and Lord of the two seas, the Sultan son of the sultan, 15 (regnal year) in the 3rd line on left; boarder of beads outside of a linear circle; very rare; $430.00 (€352.60)
South Africa, Sovereign, 1931-SA, ICG MS62
0.2354 oz gold troy oz. gold net.SL27637. South Africa, Sovereign, 1931-SA, ICG MS62, SOLD
Portugal, Afonso V the African, 1438 - 1481
Ceuta, on the north coast of Africa, was captured by Portugal in 1415 from the Kingdom of Fez. Due to its large Spanish population, it was the only city in the Portuguese Empire that sided with Spain when Portugal regained its independence in 1640 and the War of Restoration ensued. Ceuta was formally ceded to Spain in 1668.
A ceitil is one-sixth of a real. A few badly corroded similar Portuguese copper ceitils were found by the archaeologists who discovered Fernando De Soto's first winter campsite, near Tallahassee, Florida. They also found crossbow quarrel points and rings of chainmail.ME77344. Copper ceitil, cf. Gomes 982, MEC 6 Iberian Peninsula 1020 - 1059, F, uneven strike, flan chip, weight 1.528 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, North Africa, Ceuta mint, 1438 - 1481; obverse + REX PORTUGALIE ALGA (or similar, King of Portugal and Algarve), shield with arms of Portugal; reverse + ALFOS CEPT ET DOM (or similar, Alfonso Lord of Ceuta), castle of three towers, ramparts, base line and waves below; very rare; SOLD
Ballarini, R. The Perfect Form: On the Track of African Tribal Currency. (Milan, 2009).
Denk, R. Das Manillen-Geld Westafrikas: Spurensuche und Spurensicherung 1439 bis 2016. (Russelsheim, 2017).
Gomes, A. Moedas do território português antes da fundação de la nacionalidade (Hispano-romanas). (Lisbon, 1998).
Grierson, P. & M. Blackburn. Medieval European Coinage, Volume 1: The Early Middle Ages (5th - 10th Centuries). (Cambridge, 2007).
Krause, C. & C. Mishler. Standard Catalog of World Coins. (Iola, WI, 2010 - ).
Munro-Hay, S. Catalogue of the Aksumite Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1999).
Munro-Hay, S. & B. Juel-Jensen. Aksumite Coinage. (London, 1995).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Lombards and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British Museum. (London, 1911).
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