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0.2354 oz gold troy oz. gold net.SL27637. South Africa, Sovereign, 1931-SA, ICG MS62, SOLD
Portugal, Afonso V the African, 1438 - 1481
Ceuta, on the north coast of Africa, was captured by Portugal in 1415 from the Kingdom of Fez. Due to its large Spanish population, it was the only city in the Portuguese Empire that sided with Spain when Portugal regained its independence in 1640 and the War of Restoration ensued. Ceuta was formally ceded to Spain in 1668.
A ceitil is one-sixth of a real. A few badly corroded similar Portuguese copper ceitils were found by the archaeologists who discovered Fernando De Soto's first winter campsite, near Tallahassee, Florida. They also found crossbow quarrel points and rings of chainmail.ME77344. Copper ceitil, cf. Gomes 982, MEC 6 Iberian Peninsula 1020 - 1059, F, uneven strike, flan chip, weight 1.528 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, North Africa, Ceuta mint, 1438 - 1481; obverse + REX PORTUGALIE ALGA (or similar, King of Portugal and Algarve), shield with arms of Portugal; reverse + ALFOS CEPT ET DOM (or similar, Alfonso Lord of Ceuta), castle of three towers, ramparts, base line and waves below; very rare; SOLD
Manilla, Money of the Slave Trade, British, Middle - Late Period, c. 18th - early 19th Century
Manillas are brass or copper bracelet-shaped objects, used as money in West Africa, from about the 16th century to the late 1940s. They are usually horseshoe-shaped, with terminations that face each other and are roughly lozenge-shaped. Manillas were first used as money in Calabar an ancient kingdom on the southeast coast of Nigeria. In 1505, a slave could be bought in Calabar for 8-10 manillas. In 1522, in Benin a female slave 16 years of age cost 50 manillas. The price of a slave varied considerably over time, by place, and by the type of manilla. After Bristol entered the African trade, manillas were made in England for export, at first in Bristol, later in Birmingham. A typical voyage took manillas and brass objects such as pans and basins to West Africa, then slaves to America, then cotton back to the mills of Europe. Bristol merchants were responsible for shipping more than 500,000 enslaved African people to the Caribbean and North America. In 1902 the import of manillas to Nigeria was prohibited. They were, however, still in regular use in 1948 when the British bought up over 32 million pieces and resold them in Europe as scrap. A lingering reminder of the slave trade, manillas ceased to be legal tender in British West Africa on 1 April 1949. People were permitted to keep a maximum of 200 for use as a symbol of wealth in ceremonies such as marriages and funerals. Manillas may still occasionally be used as money in remote villages in Burkina Faso.AS96171. Copper Manilla, British, middle - late period, Birmingham, weight 69.2g, 68mm across, 65mm tall, 7mm gauge, teardrop foot 18mm wide x 21 mm long, SOLD
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Denk, R. Das Manillen-Geld Westafrikas: Spurensuche und Spurensicherung 1439 bis 2016. (Russelsheim, 2017).
Gomes, A. Moedas do território português antes da fundação de la nacionalidade (Hispano-romanas). (Lisbon, 1998).
Grierson, P. & M. Blackburn. Medieval European Coinage, Volume 1: The Early Middle Ages (5th - 10th Centuries). (Cambridge, 2007).
Krause, C. & C. Mishler. Standard Catalog of World Coins. (Iola, WI, 2010 - ).
Munro-Hay, S. Catalogue of the Aksumite Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1999).
Munro-Hay, S. & B. Juel-Jensen. Aksumite Coinage. (London, 1995).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Lombards and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British Museum. (London, 1911).
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