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A French cardinal, the Catholic League considered him the rightful King of France after the death of Henry III of France in 1589. His claim was recognized as part of the secret Treaty of Joinville concluded between Philip II of Spain and the League. Henry III had Charles imprisoned in the castle of Blois on December 23 1588. He was transferred from one castle to another, presumably to prevent escape, until his death in May 1590.SH94150. Gold ecu d'or, Duplessy 1172, Ciani 1481, Lafaurie 1015, Friedberg 389, gVF, tight flan, light marks, double strike, small edge cracks, weight 3.294 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 135o, Paris mint, 1593 A; obverse CAROLVS•X•D•G•FRANCOR•REX (mm: arrowhead) 1593 (Charles X, by the grace of God, king of the Franks), legend divided by sun at the top, crowned arms of France (three lis), A below; reverse + CHRISTVS•REGNAT•VINCIT:ET•IMPERAT (Christ reigns, conquers, and commands), cross fleurée, quadrilobe flower at the center, arms ending in lis; very rare; $1450.00 SALE |PRICE| $1170.00
France, King Louis Philippe, 1830 - 1848
Louis Philippe I was King from 1830 to 1848. As Duke of Chartres he distinguished himself during the Revolution but broke with the Republic over the execution of King Louis XVI. He fled to Switzerland in 1793 after being connected with a plot to restore the monarchy. He remained in exile for 21 years. He was proclaimed king after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate. He was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers and followed conservative policies. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, including French conquest of Algeria. His popularity faded as the economy deteriorated in 1847. He was forced to abdicate by the French Revolution of 1848. He lived out his life in exile in the UK. SH94140. Gold 40 Francs, Krause KM 747.1, Friedberg 557, EF, bumps and marks, edge lettering: DIEU PROTEGE LA FRANCE (God protects France), weight 12.840 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 180o, Paris mint, 1834; obverse LOUIS PHILIPPE I ROI DES FRANCAIS, head left wearing oak wreath, small DOMARD. F (engraver) below; reverse 40 FRANCS 1834 (in 3 lines) within wreath comprised of an olive branch on the right, a laurel branch on the left, tiny anchor lower left, tiny star below, tiny a lower right; $1300.00 SALE |PRICE| $940.00
France, Henry III, 1574 - 1589
Three months after Henri was elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, his brother, Charles IX of France, died and Henri returned to France to assume the French throne. Henri brought several Polish inventions back to France, including septic facilities which deposited excrement outside the castle walls, a bath with regulated hot and cold water, and the fork. Henri gave protestant Huguenots the right of public worship, except in Paris and at Court. In response, Henry I, Duke of Guise, formed the Catholic League. Henri III was forced to flee Paris. After he had the duke assassinated, Henri III prepared to return to Paris but was murdered before he could return. During the French Revolution, his body was disinterred, desecrated, and thrown into a common grave.SH94141. Gold ecu d'or, Duplessy 1121A, Ciani 1408, Lafaurie 960, Friedberg 386, Kopicki 10474 (R4), gVF, some luster, well centered, tight flan, bumps, scratches, small hole, weight 3.365 g, maximum diameter 25.6 mm, die axis 135o, Rouen mint, 1587 B; obverse HENRICVS. III. D: G. FRANC. ET. POL. REX. (Henry III, by the grace of God, king of France and Poland) legend divided by sun at the top, crowned arms of France (three lis), B below; reverse + CRISTVS. REIGN. VINCIT. ET. IMP 1578 (Christ reigns, vanquishes and commands), cross fleurée, quadrilobe flower at the center, arms ending in lis; ex Karl Stephens Inc (Temple City, CA); rare; $650.00 SALE |PRICE| $585.00
Anglo-Gallic, Edward III, 1372 - 1377
This type and similar billon Anglo-Gallic coins looked silver when issued, but after some use turned black, hence their nickname, "black money." They were usually hastily and poorly struck, heavily circulated and worn, and seldom hoarded. Surviving examples are now rare and mostly low grade. ME94138. Billon double au leopard sous couronne, SCBC 8080, Elias 92c, Duplessy Féodales 1092A, Elias Collection 167, Boudeau 500, Poey d'Avant 2895, VF, dark toning, clashed dies, flan adjustment marks, tight flan, edge cracks, weight 0.912 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 90o, obverse + ED' REX : AnGLIE (King Edward of England, trefoil after ED and at end of legend), crown with leopard left below, rosette under leopard, all within inner circle; reverse + mOnETA DVPLEX (rosette at end of legend), cross pattée with crown in 1st and 4th angles, all within inner circle; scarce; $500.00 SALE |PRICE| $320.00
France, Kingdom of Navarre and Viscountcy of Béarn, Henri III of Navarre (II of Béarn), 1572 - 1610
Henry IV of France, also known as "Good King Henry," was King of Navarre (Henry III) from 1572 and Viscount of Béarn (Henry II) from 1572. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France, Henry was called to the French succession in 1589. He initially kept the Protestant faith but after four years and at least 12 assassination attempts, he abjured the Calvinist faith. He promulgated the Edict of Nantes in 1598, guaranteeing religious freedom and ending the Wars of Religion. He was assassinated in 1610 by a fanatical Catholic. Unpopular immediately after his accession, Henry's popularity greatly improved after his death. The "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. Henry is said to have originated the oft-repeated phrase, "a chicken in every pot." WO88341. Silver teston, Duplessy Féodales 1313, Boudeau 604, Poey d'Avant 3471 & pl. LXXIV, 9 corr. (no D cow B acorn, etc.), VF, well centered, toned, double strike, portrait strike a little weak, weight 9.506 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 180o, Béarn, Morlaàs mint, 1573; obverse HENRICVS•II•D•G•REX•NAVARRE•D (cow) B (acorn) (Henry II, by the grace of god, king of Navarre), laureate and cuirassed bust of Henry III, high ruffled collar; reverse GRATIA•DEI•SVM•QD•SVM•1573 (thank God I am what I am), 5 pointed star after date, crowned coat of arms shield, crown cutting the legend at the top, 1st and 4th quarter with arms of Navarre, 2nd of Béarn, and 3rd of Bourbon, flanked on each side with a crowned H; ex Ross D. King (Ontario dealer); $350.00 SALE |PRICE| $225.00 ON RESERVE
France, Charles VII The Victorious, 1422 - 1461
Charles VII was born in 1403 as the eleventh child and fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. He was given the title of comte de Ponthieu at his birth. His four elder brothers all died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles. Due to the Treaty of Troyes, in which Charles VI signed for King Henry V of England as his legitimate successor to the throne of France, a new conflict with England was created. The succession was claimed both by the King of England and by the disinherited younger Charles.WO94149. Billon plaque (double gros), Duplessy 480A, Ciani 657, Roberts 2906, F, toned, clashed dies, tight flan, weight 3.103 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 270o, 1427 - 1433; obverse KAROLVS•DEI•GRA•FRANCORV•REX (Charles, by the grace of God, King of the Franks), three lis within circle; reverse + SIT:NO-ME:NOM-INI:BEN-EDICTV (Blessed be the name of the Lord), long cross pattée with F R A C' in quarters; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; rare; $245.00 SALE |PRICE| $195.00
France, Henri IV, 2 August 1589 - 14 May 1610
Henry IV, also known as "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France, Henry was called to the French succession in 1589. He initially kept the Protestant faith but after four years and at least 12 assassination attempts, he abjured the Calvinist faith. He promulgated the Edict of Nantes in 1598, guaranteeing religious freedom and ending the Wars of Religion. He was assassinated in 1610 by a fanatical Catholic. Unpopular immediately after his accession, Henry's popularity greatly improved after his death. The "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. Henry is said to have originated the oft-repeated phrase, "a chicken in every pot."UK88342. Silver 1/2 franc, Duplessy 1212A, Lafaurie 1061, Ciani 1534, Roberts 3581, VF, well centered, toned, areas flatly struck, tiny edge split, weight 7.028 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 180o, Angers mint, 1600; obverse HENRICVS•IIII•D•G•FRAN•ET•NAVA•REX• (Henry IV, by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre), bust of king right, •F• (mintmark) below; reverse + SIT•NOMEN•DOMINI•BENEDICVM•1600 (Blessed is the Name of the Lord), floral cross, with H in center; ex Karl Stephens (Temple City, CA dealer); rare; $260.00 SALE |PRICE| $185.00
France, Charles IX, 1560 - 1574
Charles IX ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II. After decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. In 1572, after several unsuccessful peace attempts, Charles ordered the marriage of his sister Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre, a major Protestant nobleman and the future King Henry IV of France, in a last desperate bid to reconcile his people. Facing popular hostility against this policy of appeasement, Charles allowed the massacre of all Huguenot leaders who gathered in Paris for the royal wedding at the instigation of his mother Catherine de' Medici. This event, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, was a significant blow to the Huguenot movement. Religious civil warfare soon began anew. Charles ordered the Siege of La Rochelle, but was unable to take the Protestant stronghold. Charles died of tuberculosis without legitimate male issue in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother Henry III.WO94147. Silver teston, Roberts 3551, Duplessy 1063, Ciani 1356, Lafaurie 895, VF, iridescent tone on mint luster, well centered on a tight flan, die wear, weak centers, weight 9.259 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 45o, 1562; obverse CAROLVS•VIIII•D•G•FRANCO•REX• (Charles IX, by the Grace of God, King of France), laureate and cuirassed boy's bust left, mint-mark (off flan) below; reverse + SIT•NOMEN•DNI•H•BENEDIC•M•D•LXII (Blessed be the name of the Lord, 1562), crowned coat of arms (three fleur de lis), crowned C's flanking; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; very rare; $220.00 SALE |PRICE| $175.00
France, County of Toulouse, Guillaume IX of Aquitaine, 22 October 1071 – 10 February 1127
Toulouse was home to some Cathars, who the Catholic Church condemned as heretical. The orthodox White Brotherhood and the hereticals Blacks fought in the streets of the city. Raymond VI, who was excommunicated for a dispute with the pope, sympathized with the heretics. In 1216, the crusader Simon de Montfort, threatening to kill many hostages, entered the city, and appointed himself count. Raymond VI retook the city in 1217. While besieging the city again in 1218, Simon was killed by a stone from the defenders' trebuchet (or a mangonel), said to have been operated by girls and women of the city.ME92075. Silver denier, Duplessy Feodales I 1210 (William IV), Poey 3676 (Guillaume IV), Boudeau 710 (Guillaume IV), Roberts 4225, gVF, toned, weight 1.108 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 0o, Toulouse mint, 2nd reign, 1119 - 1123; obverse VVIELMO COME, cross pattée, S in the second quarter; reverse + TOLOSA CIVI, P II + (=PAX, crozier-shaped P) clockwise around center; $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00
France, Feudal, County of Penthièvre, Etienne I, 1093 - 1138
Etienne or Stephen of Penthièvre, Count of Tréguier, 3rd Lord of Richmond was a Breton noble and a younger son of Odo, Count of Penthièvre and Agnes of Cornouaille, sister of Hoël II, Duke of Brittany. In 1093, he succeeded to the title of Count of Tréguier; in 1098, he succeeded his brother Alain as Lord of Richmond in Yorkshire, England. Penthievre is a county in northern Brittany, a cultural region in the west of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and then a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532.ME92073. Billon denier, Duplessy Féodales 364; Poey-d'Avant pl. XXVII, 5; Roberts 4953, VF, toned, small deposits, weight 0.825 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 120o, Penthievre mint, 1093 - 1138; obverse + STEPhAN COO), cross pattée cantoned with two stars; reverse + GVING AMP:, head right (deformed); $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00
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