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The Temple Tax Coin, Tyre KP Type Half Shekel, Jerusalem or Tyre Mint, 36 - 37 A.D.
At the Great Temple in Jerusalem the annual tax levied was 1/2 shekel per male. The 1/2 shekel and shekel were the only coins accepted by the temple. Some experts believe that after the coinage of Tyre was debased under Roman control, Herod the Great began to strike "Tyre" shekels in Jerusalem. These coins were of cruder fabric and style, but maintained the silver purity required to pay the temple tax. The "Jerusalem" shekels have the letters KP or KAP to the right of the eagle and dates range from PH (18/17 B.C.) to PKE (69/70 A.D.). The Greek letters KP or KAP are probably an abbreviation for KAICAP, Greek for Caesar.
SH94461. Silver half shekel, RPC I 4695, Prieur 1465, BMC Phoenicia -, aVF, attractive style, toned, bumps and marks, die wear, closed edge crack, weight 6.244 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre or Jerusalem mint, 36 - 37 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle standing left, right foot on ship's ram, palm frond behind, PΞB (year 162) over club left, KP over monogram right, Aramaic letter between legs; ex Forum (2010), ex Temple Tax Hoard; $900.00 SALE |PRICE| $810.00
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue
Born a leader, his genius and charisma led the Macedonian army to create an empire covering most of the then-known world, from Greece to India. His reign begins the Hellenistic Age, a time when civilization flourished. He was regarded as a god and his fame grew even greater after his premature death at thirty-two. GS94444. Silver tetradrachm, Price 3485, Newell Dated 24 (obv. die XII), Cohen DCA 874 (R3), Demanhur 3739, Prokesch-Osten I 34, Newell Reattribution 145, Newell Sidon 24, EF, high relief, grainy porous surfaces, obverse a little off center, reverse double struck, small edge splits, weight 16.544 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 0o, Sidon (Saida, Lebanon) mint, struck under Menes, 326 - 325 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin, scalp over head, forepaws tied at neck; reverse Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, right leg forward (archaic lifetime style), eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, AΛEΞAN∆POY downward behind, Phoenician letter het (year 8) in left field, ΣI under throne; only one specimen recorded on Coin Archives; very rare date; $850.00 SALE |PRICE| $680.00
Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physcon), Second Reign, 145 - 116 B.C.
Ptolemy VIII and his older brother Ptolemy VI ruled jointly from 170 to 164 B.C. Porphyry notes, "The 36th year of [Ptolemy VI] Philometor was the 25th of [Ptolemy VIII] Euergetes II." The reverse die has a date that could be read as 11 years earlier. Instead, this is an issue for Ptolemy VIII, Year 25. This year was the same as Ptolemy VI, Year 36. Ptolemy VI died in July of 145 BC, and his Year 36 became Year 25 of Ptolemy VIII. SL94004. Silver tetradrachm, Paphos I Alexandria pl. XVIII 10 (Ptolemy VIII), SNG Cop 323 (VI), Svoronos 1437 (VI), Noeske 228 (VI), SNG Cop -, Weiser -, NGC VF (Ptolemy VI) (4882205-012), Alexandria mint, Jul - Aug 145 B.C.; obverse diademed bust of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (King Ptolemy), smallish eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head left, wings closed, LKE (year 25) left, ΠA right; ex Heritage auction 231941 (10 Oct 2019), lot 62121; NGC| Lookup; $810.00 SALE |PRICE| $650.00
Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy IV Philopator, 221 - 204 B.C.
Ptolemy IV's surname, Philopator, means father lover, ironic since according to some authorities he poisoned his father. Ptolemy IV is a major protagonist of the apocryphal 3 Maccabees, which describes events following the Battle of Raphia, in both Jerusalem and Alexandria. He was a cruel and evil monarch.GP93420. Bronze drachm, Lorber CPE B495; Svoronos 1125; Noeske 140; SNG Cop 199; Weiser 49; BMC Ptolemies p. 57, 106; Hosking -, Choice VF, attractive Zeus, well centered and struck, dark tone with areas of red and blue-green patina, bumps and marks, central depressions, beveled obverse edge, weight 67.115 g, maximum diameter 42.0 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, c. 219 - 204 B.C.; obverse horned head of Zeus Ammon right, wearing taenia; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (King Ptolemy), eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings closed, filleted cornucopia left, ∆I between eagle's legs; from the Errett Bishop Collection, a massive 67g Ptolemaic bronze!; $450.00 SALE |PRICE| $405.00
Sinope, Paphlagonia, c. 330 - 300 B.C.
Long used as a Hittite port, Sinope was re-founded as a Greek colony by Miletus in the 7th century B.C. Sinope flourished as the Black Sea port of a caravan route that led from the upper Euphrates valley. The city escaped Persian domination until the early 4th century B.C. In 183 B.C. it was captured by Pharnaces I and became the capital of the kingdom of Pontus. Lucullus conquered Sinope for Rome in 70 B.C., and Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there, Colonia Julia Felix, in 47 B.C. It remained with the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantines). It was a part of the Empire of Trebizond from the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204 until the capture of the city by the Seljuk Turks of Rûm in 1214.SH91741. Silver drachm, SNG BM 1481; SNG Stancomb 770; SNG Pontus p. 97, 13 ff. var. (magistrate); SNG Cop 284 f. var. (same); HGC 7 399 (S), VF, centered on a tight flan, porous, dark areas, weight 4.748 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 180o, Sinope (Sinop, Turkey) mint, c. 330 - 300 B.C.; obverse head of nymph left, hair in sakkos, wearing triple pendant earring and necklace; reverse eagle left with dolphin left in talons, AΓPEΩΣ (magistrate) below wing, ΣINΩ below dolphin; scarce; $420.00 SALE |PRICE| $378.00
Odessos, Thrace, c. 280 - 200 B.C., Civic Issue in the Types and Name of Alexander the Great
Odessos (Varna, Bulgaria) was created when Miletian Greeks founded an apoikia (trading post) at an existing Thracian settlement around 600 B.C. Odessos was in the Delian league in the 5th century B.C. Philip II besieged it unsuccessfully in 339. Getae priests persuaded him to make a treaty but the city surrendered to his son Alexander the Great in 335. In 313 B.C., in coalition with other Pontic cities and the Getae, Odessos rebelled against Lysimachus. After Lysimachus' death in 281, the city reverted to striking in the types and names of Alexander the Great and continued to strike Alexandrine tetradrachms until at least 70 B.C. After the Battle of Pydna in 168 B.C., Thrace passed to Rome. The Thracians, however, did not all readily accept Roman dominion. Several revolts occurred. The next century and a half saw the slow development of Thracia into a permanent Roman client state.SH91295. Silver tetradrachm, Black Sea Hoard 311 - 312 (OK/R32), Price 1160, AMNG II 2116, HGC 3.2 1584, Müller Alexander -, VF, attractive style, well centered and struck, tight flan, light toning, weight 16.621 g, maximum diameter 29.2 mm, die axis 0o, Odessos (Varna, Bulgaria) mint, c. 280 - 200 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion-scalp headdress; reverse Zeus seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, right leg drawn back, K∆ monogram (magistrate) below arm, O∆H Odessos monogram under throne, AΛEΞAN∆POY downward on left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ downward on right; $310.00 SALE |PRICE| $325.00 ON RESERVE
Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), 2nd Reign, 88 - 80 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Soter II Lathyros was the elder son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III. After his father died in 116 B.C., he ruled jointly with his mother Cleopatra III. His first reign ended in 110 B.C. when his mother replaced him with her favorite son, Alexander, who ruled as Ptolemy X. In 109 B.C., Ptolemy IX Soter successfully recovered the throne. In 107 B.C., however, his mother claimed that he had tried to kill her and Ptolemy X Alexander was again made king. Ptolemy IX ruled Cyprus. Ptolemy X Alexander had their mother, Cleopatra III, murdered in 101 B.C. Ptolemy IX Soter II Lathyros became king of Egypt again in 88 B.C., after Ptolemy X Alexander was killed in battle, until his death in 81 B.C.GP88180. Silver tetradrachm, Svoronos 1687 & pl. 57, 31 (6 spec.); SNG Cop 375; BMC Ptolemies p. 114, 79 & pl. xxviii, 8; Cohen DCA 64; Noeske -; Hosking -, SNG Milan -, gVF, toned, flow lines, full legend, high points of hair not fully struck, weight 13.793 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 88 B.C.; obverse diademed bust of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (King Ptolemy), eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head left, wings closed, LKΘ (year 29) left, ΠA right; from a New England collector; very rare; $320.00 SALE |PRICE| $288.00
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C.
Struck in the name of King Philip III Arrhidaeus, Alexander the Great's half-brother, under the regent Perdikkas. Philip III and Alexander's infant son, Alexander IV, were made joint kings after Alexander's death. Philip was the bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa. Alexander the Great's mother, Olympias, allegedly poisoned her stepson Philip III as a child, leaving him mentally disabled, eliminating him as a rival to Alexander. Neither Philip III nor Alexander IV was capable of actual rule and both were selected only to serve as pawns. The regents held power, while Philip III was actually imprisoned. In 317, Philip was murdered by Olympias to ensure the succession of her grandson.SH95391. Silver drachm, Price P48, Müller P137, gem EF, lustrous, flow lines, centered on a tight flan, weight 3.987 g, maximum diameter 16.34 mm, die axis 0o, Ionia, Kolophon (near Degirmendere Fev, Turkey) mint, 323 - 319 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, right leg drawn back, (ΠA monogram) left, ΦIΛIΠΠOY downward on right, B under throne; ex Forum (2006); $320.00 SALE |PRICE| $288.00
Mesembria, Thrace, c. 250 - 175 B.C., Civic Issue in the Types and Name of Alexander the Great
Mesembria, Nesebar Bulgaria today, was a Doric settlement on a Black Sea island just off mainland Thrace. Thrace was invaded by the Galatians in 279 B.C. Only the wealthy coastal cities, including Mesembria, withstood their attacks. Following that chaos, rule of Thrace was divided between many tribes. Philip V, 221 - 179 B.C., tried to regain control of the area for the Macedonian Kingdom, but his success was limited and short lived. Mesembria was taken by Mithradates VI in the First Mithradatic War and surrendered to Rome in 71 B.C. The city struck Alexandrine tetradrachms as early as 275 B.C., more than 50 years after Alexander's death, and probably issued the very last Alexandrine tetradrachms struck anywhere, possibly under Roman rule as late as 65 B.C.SH91294. Silver tetradrachm, Karayotov p. 83 & pl. VI, 21 - 22 (O7/R10, same die break on exergue line); Price 992; Müller Alexander 436, Mektepini 9, HGC 3.2 1567 (R1), VF, attractive style, well centered and struck, light toning, weight 17.003 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 30o, Mesambria (Nesebar, Bulgaria) mint, c. 250 - 175 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion-scalp headdress; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY downward on right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ downward on left, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg drawn back, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, Corinthian helmet right over (ΠA monogram) in inner left field under arm; $310.00 SALE |PRICE| $279.00
Mesembria, Thrace, c. 250 - 175 B.C., Civic Issue in the Types and Name of Alexander the Great
In 279 B.C., Ptolemy Keraunos, the son of Ptolemy I, was captured and killed by Galatian Celts who overran Thrace and established a Celtic kingdom at Tylis. Mesembria, Odessos, Kallatis, and Istros, later followed by Cabyle, Dionysopolis and Tomis began striking gold and silver coins in the name of Alexander the Great along with autonomous civic bronze coinage. Much of the silver and gold coinage was likely needed to pay tribute to the new Celtic rulers of the hinterland until the destruction of the Kingdom of Tylis, c. 218 B.C.SH91296. Silver tetradrachm, Karayotov p. 83 & pl. VI, 21 - 22 (O7/R10, same die break on exergue line); Price 992; Müller Alexander 436, Mektepini 9, HGC 3.2 1567 (R1), VF, attractive style, well centered on a tight flan, light marks, struck with a slightly dirty reverse die, weight 16.601 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 30o, Mesambria (Nesebar, Bulgaria) mint, c. 250 - 175 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion-scalp headdress; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY downward on right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ downward on left, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg drawn back, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, Corinthian helmet right over (ΠA monogram) in inner left field under arm; $310.00 SALE |PRICE| $279.00