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Gallic Empire, Postumus, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
The radiate crown indicates the double denomination. The weights are sometimes no heavier than sestertii of the period, and they are frequently overstruck on coins of the first and second century emperors. Authorities do not agree on the mint. Also, there are also many imitatives or counterfeits, some of which are very crude style, carelessly struck, or both.RA93326. Orichalcum double sestertius, RIC V-2 169, SRCV III 11065, Cohen VI 380, Hunter IV - (p. xcii), F, well centered on a tight flan, brown patina, weight 16.714 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, die axis 165o, uncertain (Cologne?) mint, c. 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, captive seated left at feet on left with hands bound behind, S C in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $180.00 (€165.60)
Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
In 320 A.D., Licinius reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan, and began a new persecution of Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire. He destroyed churches, imprisoned Christians and confiscated their property.RL89635. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Lyons 70a (R1), Hunter V 17, SRCV IV 15360, Cohen 174, Choice VF, well centered, some silvering, porosity on obverse, weight 2.613 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 319 - 320 A.D.; obverse IMP LICI-NVS AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP (Joyous victory to the eternal Prince), two victories standing confronted, holding shield inscribed VOT / P R over tall altar (type a) with a garland, two captives seated back to back in exergue; ex Beast Coins VLPP Collection, ex Keith Metzer Collection; scarce; $75.00 (€69.00)
Licinius Junior, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 18 September 324 A.D.
On 7 March 321, Constantine issued an edict proclaiming Dies Solis Invicti (Sunday) as the day of rest; trade was forbidden but agriculture was allowed.RL96401. Billon follis, Hunter V 52 (also 7th officina), RIC VII Antioch 36 (R3), SRCV IV 15410, Cohen VII 21, gF, brown tone, porous, light corrosion, weight 3.940 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 0o, 7th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 321 - 323 A.D.; obverse D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, shield in left hand and spear in right; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI (to Jupiter the protector), Jupiter standing facing, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulder, Victory on globe offering wreath in his right hand, eagle-topped scepter vertical in left, eagle with wreath in beak on left, X/IIΓ (12 1/2) on right above bearded captive at feet seated right with head turned looking back at Jupiter, SMANTZ in exergue; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, purchased in Israel, 1970's; $75.00 (€69.00)
Valentinian II, 17 November 375 - 15 May 392 A.D.
In 391, all non-Christian temples in the Empire were closed, as Theodosius established Christianity as the official state religion. The eternal fire in the Temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum was extinguished, and the Vestal Virgins were disbanded.RL93288. Bronze half centenionalis, cf. SRCV V 20341 ff., F, dark patina, earthen deposits, weight 1.253 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 0o, 383 - 392 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE (health of the Republic), Victory walking left holding trophy over shoulder in right and dragging captive with left, staurogram left, uncertain mintmark in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $36.00 (€33.12)