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In 340 B.C., the Byzantines, with the aid of the Athenians, successfully withstood a siege by Philip of Macedon. They were, however, forced to recognize Macedonian suzerainty after surrendering without a fight to Alexander the Great in 334 B.C. GA92185. Silver half siglos, SNG Cop 479, SNG Stancomb 2, SNG BM 36, Dewing 1282, VF, well centered, uneven toning, tiny edge crack edge, weight 2.437 g, maximum diameter 13.4 mm, Byzantion (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 340 - 320 B.C.; obverse BY (archaic B similar to Π or Γ), cow walking left, dolphin left below; reverse quadripartite stippled mill-sail incuse punch; $9999.00 (€8799.12)
Syracuse, Sicily, Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
SH86312. Silver tetradrachm, Boehringer Series XIVb, 489 (V258/R351); SNG ANS 156 (same dies); Weber 1583 (same obv. die); BMC Sicily, p. 156, 80; Jameson 762; HGC 2 1312, EF, mint luster in recesses, light tone, obverse die wear, uneven strike, reverse off center, weight 17.391 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 466 - 460 B.C.; obverse charioteer driving slow quadriga right, holding reins in both hands, goad in right hand, Nike above flying left crowning driver with wreath, Ketos (sea serpent) right in exergue; reverse ΣYPAKOΣON, head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl or bead necklace and earring with loop and finial pendant, thin band wound once around her head and tying back hair in queue, four dolphins around swimming clockwise; ex CNG auction 102 (18 May 2016), lot 135; ex Colin E. Pitchfork Collection; ex Dr. Neil Geddes (20 Nov 2002); ex Noble auction 54 (22 July 1997), lot 1640; ex Stack’s sale, 6 Dec 1995, lot 65; $2040.00 (€1795.20)
Syracuse, Sicily, Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was restored in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. Syracuse fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately Syracuse was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened.SH89722. Silver tetradrachm, Boehringer Series XX, 698 (V344/R476); SNG ANS 233 (same dies); BMC Sicily p. 161, 115 (same); Weber 1592 (same); HGC 2 1322 (S), VF, elegant nymph well centered on a tight flan, obverse strike weak and crowded by tight flan, weight 16.854 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 270o, Syracuse mint, c. 425 - 420 B.C.; obverse male charioteer driving a walking quadriga to right, wearing a long chiton, goad in his right hand, reins in both hands, Nike above flying left to crown the charioteer; reverse ΣYPAKOΣION upward on right, Head of Arethusa right, her hair in a sakkos and an ampyx, bound with olive-wreath and a double decorated fillet, wearing earring and a necklace with a lion's head, four dolphins swimming around; scarce; $1400.00 (€1232.00)
Sinope, Paphlagonia, c. 330 - 300 B.C.
Long used as a Hittite port, Sinope was re-founded as a Greek colony by Miletus in the 7th century B.C. Sinope flourished as the Black Sea port of a caravan route that led from the upper Euphrates valley. The city escaped Persian domination until the early 4th century B.C. In 183 B.C. it was captured by Pharnaces I and became the capital of the kingdom of Pontus. Lucullus conquered Sinope for Rome in 70 B.C., and Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there, Colonia Julia Felix, in 47 B.C. It remained with the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantines). It was a part of the Empire of Trebizond from the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204 until the capture of the city by the Seljuk Turks of Rûm in 1214.SH91741. Silver drachm, SNG BM 1481; SNG Stancomb 770; SNG Pontus p. 97, 13 ff. var. (magistrate); SNG Cop 284 f. var. (same); HGC 7 399 (S), VF, centered on a tight flan, porous, dark areas, weight 4.748 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 180o, Sinope (Sinop, Turkey) mint, c. 330 - 300 B.C.; obverse head of nymph left, hair in sakkos, wearing triple pendant earring and necklace; reverse eagle left with dolphin left in talons, AΓPEΩΣ (magistrate) below wing, ΣINΩ below dolphin; scarce; $470.00 (€413.60)
Syracuse, Sicily, Dionysios I, c. 405 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of Syracuse. He conquered several cities in Sicily and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in Sicily and made Syracuse the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive.GS86597. Silver hemilitron, SNG ANS 301; SNG Cop 669; SNG Lloyd 1379; BMC Sicily p. 182, 237; Boehringer Münzprägungen pl. II, 19; HGC 2 1392 (R2) , VF, dark toning, light marks and corrosion, tiny edge cracks, weight 0.434 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Syracuse mint, c. 405 - 395 B.C.; obverse head of nymph Arethusa left, wearing drop earring, hair bound in ampyx and sphendone, no control symbol or signature; reverse four-spoked wheel, SY-PA in upper quarters, two dolphins heads downward nose to nose in lower quarters; very rare; $300.00 (€264.00)
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander IV, c. 323 - 311 B.C.
Struck after Alexander's death, under either Perdikkas or Antipater, regents during the joint reign of Alexander's mentally disabled half-brother, Philip III, and Alexander's infant son, Alexander IV. Philip was the bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa. Alexander the Great's mother, Olympias, allegedly poisoned her stepson Philip III as a child, leaving him mentally disabled, eliminating him as a rival to Alexander. Neither Philip III nor Alexander IV was capable of actual rule. Both were selected only to serve as pawns. The regents held power, while Philip III was actually imprisoned. In 317, Olympias had Philip murdered to ensure the succession of her grandson. But Alexander IV would never rule. In 311 B.C., he and his mother Roxana were executed by the regent Kassander.GS87631. Silver tetradrachm, Price 133; Müller Alexander 542; SNG Alpha Bank 514; SNG Saroglos 253; SNG Cop 688; SNG München 293; Ehrhardt Amphipolis 15, VF, excellent centering, light rose toning, light bumps and marks, weight 16.960 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 90o, Macedonia, Amphipolis mint, c. 316 - c. 311 A.D.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin, scalp over head, forepaws tied at neck; reverse Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, right leg forward (archaic lifetime style), nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, AΛEΞAN∆POY downward behind, dolphin head down left, Πo under throne; $300.00 (€264.00)
Phoenicia, Tyre, c. 425 - 333 B.C.
GS93072. Silver 1/24th shekel, Elayi 1722, HGC 10 337 (R2), VF, dark find patina, weight 0.315 g, maximum diameter 7.1 mm, die axis 270o, Tyre mint, c. 425 - 333 B.C; obverse dolphin left; reverse ram head left; ex Triskeles auction 28 (21 Jun 2019), lot 77; very rare; $150.00 (€132.00)
Taras, Calabria, Italy, c. 390 - 385 B.C.
Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta). These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave Greece forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at Delphi and was told to make the harbor of Taranto their home. They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The reverse depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon. This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of modern Taranto today.GS91333. Silver nomos, Fischer-Bossert group 28, 408 (V179/R314); Vlasto 370 (same dies); SNG ANS 892 (same); SNG Cop 806 (same); HN Italy 870, HGC 1 768 (R1), aF, toned, tight flan, weight 7.564 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, c. 390 - 385 B.C.; obverse ephebe (Greek young man 18 - 20 years old in military training) on horseback galloping right, nude, holding reins with both hands, Λ below horse; reverse Taras astride dolphin left, akrostolion in extended right hand, Λ below dolphin between Taras' feet, TAPAΣ below; $135.00 (€118.80)
Istros, Thrace, c. 311 - 240 B.C.
The obverse type has been variously interpreted as representing the Dioscuri, the rising and setting sun, and the two branches of the river Danube. - Greek Coins and Their Values by David Sear MA93721. Silver 1/4 drachm, SNG BM 250; BMC Thrace p. 26, 14; SNG Cop 200; AMNG I 443.2; SNG Stancomb -, F, light toning, tight flan, die wear, weight 1.122 g, maximum diameter 11.2 mm, Istros (near Istria, Romania) mint, c. 311 - 240 B.C.; obverse two facing male heads, right head inverted; reverse IΣTPIH, sea-eagle left grasping a dolphin left with talons, ligate AΓ monogram (control) below dolphin; rare; $124.89 (€109.90)
Syracuse, Sicily, c. 415 B.C.
Calciati referring to this type notes, "Coins exist signed by signed by Kimon (KIM), Phrygillos (ΦPI), Eukleidas (EY) and by an unknown engraver with the letter E (Eumenes?)." While we cannot see a signature on this coin, the style appears to be that of Phrygillos.GI88103. Bronze hemilitron, cf. Calciati II p. 47, 19; SNG ANS 412; BMC Sicily p. 182, 243; SNG Cop 696; SGCV I 1186; HGC 2 1479 (S), VF, earthen encrustation, weight 3.738 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 90o, Syracuse mint, c. 415 B.C.; obverse Head of Arethusa left, hair in sphendone inscribed ΦPI, dolphin behind; reverse ΣY−PA, wheel of four spokes, dolphin in each of the lower quarters; $95.00 (€83.60)