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About 287, Diocletian assumed the title Iovius and Maximian assumed the title Herculius. The titles were symbolic of their roles: Diocletian-Jove was dominant, responsible for planning and commanding; Maximian-Hercules had the heroic role of completing assigned tasks. Despite the symbolism, the emperors were not actually worshiped as the gods Jupiter and Hercules in the imperial cult. Instead, they were seen as the gods' instruments, imposing the gods' will on earth. RB93258. Billon antoninianus, Cohen VI 583 (also Hercules striding right), RIC V-2 515 (S), SRCV IV -, Hunter V -, F, dark patina, well centered, some light corrosion, deep "cleaning" scratches, weight 4.480 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Rome mint, 293 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Hercules striding right, club downward in right hand, lion skin over left arm and shoudler, trophy in left hand, XXIS in exergue; rare with Hercules striding right (normally standing facing); $80.00 (Ä72.00)
Gaius Caesar, Grandson of Augustus, Laodicea ad Lycus, Phrygia
Laodicea ad Lycum fell under Roman control in 133 B.C. It suffered greatly during the Mithridatic Wars but quickly recovered under Roman rule. Towards the end of the Roman Republic and under the first emperors, Laodicea, benefiting from its advantageous position on a trade route. It became one of the most important and flourishing commercial cities of Anatolia, know for its large money transactions and its black wool trade. RP93133. Bronze AE 16, RPC I 2900; BMC Phrygia p. 303, 154; SNG Cop 557; SNGvA 3838; Lindgren-Kovacs 990A, VF, broad flan, obverse off center, mild porosity, weight 3.852 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, die axis 0o, Laodicea ad Lycum (near Denizli, Turkey) mint, magistrate Anto. Polemon Philopatris, c. 5 B.C.; obverse ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAP, bare head right; reverse eagle standing facing, turned slightly to right, head and tail left, ΠOΛE monogram left, ΦIΛOΠAT monogram right, ΛAO∆IKEΩN below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, financial, social, and military reforms to strengthen the empire. The government was restructured and civil and military authority separated. A new gold coin, the solidus, was introduced to combat inflation. It would become the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. RL93255. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Antioch 81, LRBC I 1347, SRCV IV 16270, Cohen VII 454, Choice aEF, much silvering, well centered, some porosity, weight 2.414 g, maximum diameter 19.95 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 326 - 327 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, rosette-diademed head right; reverse PROVIDENTIAE AVGG (to the foresight of the two emperors), campgate with two turrets, star above, pellet in doorway, SMANTA in exergue; $90.00 (Ä81.00)
Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.
"This reverse is modeled after the famous statue of the Spirit of the Roman People in the Roman Forum. It is unclear when this statue was last seen as it is now lost. Although the coins celebrate a wide range of spirits (e.g., Rome, Augustus, the Army, etc.), the basic design comes from the same statue...The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted." -- Roman Bronze Coins From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D. by Victor Failmezger RT93257. Billon follis, Hunter V 50 (also 2nd officina), RIC VI Cyzicus 11a, SRCV IV 14032, Cohen VII 58, Choice EF, full border centering, some silvering, flow lines, slightest porosity, weight 9.997 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 297 - 299 A.D.; obverse FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN (to the guardian spirits of our emperors and caesars), Genius standing left, kalathos on head, nude but for paludamentum over shoulders and left arm, patera from which liquid flows in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, KB in exergue; $110.00 (Ä99.00)
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Annona was worshiped in Rome as the goddess who prospered the year's supply of grain. She was represented on an altar in the capital. The three principal granaries of Rome were Sicily, Egypt, and the African provinces. Annona civilis was the grain which purchased each year by the Roman state, then imported and put into storage, reserved for the subsistence of the people. Annona militaris was grain appropriated to the use of an army during a campaign. RB92444. Copper as, RIC III 921, BMCRE 1951, Cohen II 45, Hunter II 306, SRCV II 4294, aVF, obverse a little off center, strike a little uneven, encrustations, bumps, some porosity, edge crack, weight 10.481 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 153 - 154 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right; reverse ANNONA AVG COS IIII, Annona standing facing, looking right, right hand on modius at left side set on base, branch in left hand, large basket of fruits at feet on right, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and make provision. She was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult of ancient Rome. Providentia figures in art, cult, and literature, but has little or no mythology as such. RB92445. Copper as, RIC III 1052, BMCRE IV 2117, Cohen II 1052, Hunter II 367, SRCV II -, F, rough, corrosion, edge cracks, weight 9.237 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 160 - 161 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right; reverse TR POT XXIIII COS IIII, Genius standing facing, draped, sacrificing from patera in right hand over columnar altar at feet on left, long vertical scepter in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) across field below center; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $45.00 SALE |PRICE| $40.50
Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius
Faustina I was the wife of Antoninus Pius. Little is known of her, except that she was regarded as vain and frivolous, though this may have just been malicious gossip. Antoninus Pius loved her greatly, and upon her death in 141 A.D., she was deified and a temple was built in her honor. RB92446. Orichalcum sestertius, BMCRE IV AP1487, Hunter II 91, RIC III AP1103(a) var. (no stephane), Cohen II 17, SRCV II 4606, aVF, dark patina, scattered porosity/light corrosion, weight 22.770 g, maximum diameter 32.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, posthumous, c. 147 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, veiled and draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair piled in a coil on top; reverse AETERNITAS, Aeternitas seated left, draped and veiled, nimbate phoenix right on globe in right hand, transverse long scepter in left hand, feet on footstool, S C (senatus consulto) across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $170.00 SALE |PRICE| $153.00
Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Carthago Nova, Hispania Tarraconensis; Nero and Drusus Caesars Reverse
Nero and Drusus Caesars were the elder brothers of Caligula, sons of Germanicus and Great-Grandsons of Augustus, Livia, Octavia and Marc Antony. The brothers were both, but separately, charged with treason against Tiberius and died in prison. Drusus was starved to death, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed (Annals 6.23). RP93124. Bronze as, RPC I 179, Villaronga-Benages 3149, SNG Cop 501, SNG TŁbingen 21, F, rough, bumps, corrosion, tight flan, weight 19.452 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Carthago Nova mint, 23 - 29 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS P M (Tiberius Caesar son of the Divine Augustus, emperor, high priest), bare head left; reverse NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES QVINQ C V I N C (Nero and Drusus caesars quinquennial [duumvirs] Colonia Urbis Iulia Nova Carthago), confronted heads of Nero and Drusus Caesars; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., with Agrippina Junior
Ephesos, on the west coast of Anatolia, was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. It was famous for its Temple of Artemis, completed around 550 B.C., one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The cult image of the Ephesian goddess has a mummy-like body with the feet placed close together, is many-breasted, and from each of her hands hangs a long fillet with tassels at the ends. At her side stands a stag, raising its head to the image of the goddess. The usual symbols of this nature-goddess are the torch, stag, and the bee. Coins of Ephesos most frequently depict a bee on the obverse. The high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called King Bee, while the virgin priestesses were called honey-bees (Melissae). Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia cited in the Book of Revelation and the Gospel of John may have been written there. RP93131. Bronze assarion, Karwiese MvE 5.2; RPC I 2624; SNG Cop 373; BMC Ionia p. 73, 205; Weber 2875; SNG MŁnchen -; SNGvA -, aVF, well centered, a little rough from corrosion, weight 6.572 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 180o, Ephesos mint, c. 49 - 50 A.D.; obverse jugate heads right of Claudius, laureate, and Agrippina, draped; reverse stag standing right, KOYΣI/NIOΣ (Causinius, magistrate) in two lines above, o/T monogram left, ∆ right, EΦE below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Beroea, Cyrrhestica, Syria
English-speakers refer to the city as Aleppo. The original ancient name, Halab, has survived as the current Arabic name. It was also known in antiquity as Khalpe, Khalibon, and to the Greeks and Romans as Beroea. During the Crusades, and again during the French Mandate of 1923-1946, it was Alep. Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this. Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists, since the modern city occupies its ancient site. Much of the city and its heritage has been damaged or destroyed in the Syrian Civil War. RY93154. Bronze AE 25, RPC Online III 3427; SNG Cop 37; SNG MŁnchen 441; SNG Hunterian 2699; BMC Galatia p. 130, 4, F, centered on a tight flan, nice portrait, parts of legend weak, slight porosity, light deposits, weight 11.483 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 0o, Cyrrhestica, Beroea (Aleppo, Syria) mint, 25 Jan 98 - 8 or 9 Aug 117 A.D.; obverse AYTOKP KAIC NEP TPAIANOC APICT CEB ΓEPM ∆AK ΠAPΘ, laureate head right; reverse BEPOI/AIWN in two lines, B below, all within laurel wreath; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00
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