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Galatia was named for Gauls from Thrace who settled there and became its ruling caste following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 B.C. The local Cappadocian population was left in control of the towns and most of the land, paying tithes to the new military aristocracy who kept aloof in fortified farmsteads, surrounded by their bands. These Celtic warriors were often hired as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. For decades their war bands ravaged western Asia Minor. About 232 B.C. the Hellenized cities united under king Attalus I of Pergamum, defeated them, and forced them to confine themselves to Galatia. The Galatians were defeated by Rome in 189 B.C. and became a client state of Rome in 64 B.C. During his second missionary journey, St. Paul of Tarsus visited Galatia, where he was detained by sickness (Galatians 4:13). The Galatians were still speaking their language (Gaulish) in the 4th century A.D.
Kings of Galatia, Amyntas, 37 - 25 B.C.
Mark Antony made Amyntas king of Galatia and several adjacent countries in 37 B.C. On this type Artemis often appears to have the features of Antony's wife, the famed Cleopatra VII of Egypt. According to Plutarch, Amyntas was among the adherents of Mark Antony at Actium in 31 B.C. but deserted to Octavian just before the battle. In 25 B.C., Amyntas was killed in an ambush by the widow of a highland prince avenging her husband's execution. Upon his death Galatia became a Roman province.GB113533. Bronze AE 19, RPC I 3503; SNG BnF 2369; SNG Cop 102; Sear Imperators 815; BMC Galatia p. 3, 14; HGC 7 784 (S), VF, nice glossy green patina, light earthen deposits, rev. a little off center, light scratches, weight 4.906 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, Galatia, Pisidia or Lykaonia, uncertain mint, 37 - 31 B.C.; obverse draped bust of Artemis (with the features of Cleopatra VII) right, bow and quiver to left; reverse stag standing right, BAΣIΛE-ΩΣ above, AMYNTOΣ in exergue; scarce; $350.00 SALE PRICE $280.00
Ephesos, Ionia (or perhaps Bargylia, Caria or Amyntas, King of Galatia), c. 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
The type is most often attributed to Ephesos, but the style and denomination/weight do not strongly support any link to that city. NGC tags for the type note the origin may be Bargylia, Caria. The style certainly fits Bargylia better than Ephesos. The consignor of this coin, a professional numismatist, believes it was struck under Amyntas, King of Galatia, 37 - 25 B.C. Amyntas also issued Artemis and stag types.GS98643. Silver trihemiobol, cf. SNG Davis 270, SNG Cop -, SNG Kayhan -, SNGvA -, BMC Galatia -, aVF, toned, light marks and scratches, weight 1.337 g, maximum diameter 12.3 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos (near Selçuk, Turkey) mint, c. 2nd - 1st Century B.C.; obverse draped bust of Artemis right, quiver at shoulder; reverse forepart of stag right, head turned back left; extremely rare; $310.00 SALE PRICE $248.00
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Parion, Mysia(?)
The attribution of this very rare type to Parium is uncertain. See RPC II p. 137.
The ceremonial founding of a new Roman colony included plowing a furrow, the pomerium, a sacred boundary, around the site of the new city.RP94451. Bronze AE 15, RPC II Online 889 (12 spec.), SNGvA 6202, F, dark brown patina, light corrosion, tight flan, weight 3.575 g, maximum diameter 15.3 mm, die axis 0o, Parion, Mysia(?) mint, 13 Sep 81 - 18 Sep 96 A.D.; obverse DO-MIT AVG (clockwise from the upper right), laureate head left; reverse priest plowing right with two oxen, marking the pomerium (sacred boundary marked for the foundation of a new Roman colony), GERM in exergue; zero sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; very rare; $80.00 SALE PRICE $64.00
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Koinon of Galatia
The reverse inscription names the authority under whom this coin was struck, Annius Afrinus, the legatus Augusti (governor) in Galatia, c. 49 - 54 A.D.RP99638. Bronze AE 21, RPC I 3559, SNG BnF 2396, Waddington 6592, Lindgren I 1671, gF, green patina, earthen deposits, porous, reverse center weakly struck, weight 5.732 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 270o, Pessinus or Ancyra mint, c. 49 - 54 A.D.; obverse KAISAP (downward behind, S reversed), laureate head right; reverse EΠI / AΦPI/NOY (under the authority of Afrinus) in three lines within wreath; ex CNG e-auction 513 (6 Apr 2022), lot 286; rare; $80.00 SALE PRICE $64.00
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Pessinus, Galatia
Unpublished in the references examined. This reverse is known from Pessinus for his brother Geta (BMC Galatia p. 23, 31).RP110458. Brass AE 30, Apparently unpublished; BMC Galatia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Lindgren -, Choice gVF, fantastic portrait, attractive contrasts, central dimples, weight 14.695 g, maximum diameter 30.1 mm, die axis 0o, Pessinus (Ballihisar, Turkey) mint, c. 211 A.D.; obverse ANTΩNINOC AVΓOVCTOC, Laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear; reverse ΠEXXIN-OΣ-NTI<Θ>ΩN, Homonoia standing facing, head left, patera in left hand, cornucopia in right hand, flaming column altar at feet on left; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; SOLD
DEVREKER, J. "LES MONNAIES DE PESSINONTE" IN HOMAGE LAMBRECHTS (BRUGGE, 1984), PP. 173–215.REFERENCES
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Arslan, M. "The Roman Coinage of Ancyra in Galatia" in Nomismata 1 (1997).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (London, 1992 - ).
Devreker, J. "Les monnaies de Pessinonte" in Homage Lambrechts. (Brugge, 1984), pp. 173–215.
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol III, Part 2. (London, 1926).
Grose, S. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fitzwilliam Museum, Vol. III: Asia Minor, Farther Asia, Egypt, Africa. (Cambridge, 1929).
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Anatolia, Pontos, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Phrygia, Galatia, Lykaonia, and Kappadokia...Fifth to First Centuries BC. HGC 7. (Lancaster, PA, 2012).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901 - 1902).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Zur griechischen und römischen Münzkunde. (Geneva, 1908).
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Mionnet, T. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines, Vol. IV. (Paris, 1809).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, |Part 6: Phrygien-Kappadokien; Römische Provinzprägungen in Kleinasien. (Berlin, 1998). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cyprus, [etc.]. (Berlin, 1964). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothéque Nationale, Vol. 3: Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Galatia. (Paris, 1994). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Österreich, Sammlung Leypold, Kleinasiatische Münzen der Kaiserzeit. Vol. II: Phrygia - Commagene. (Vienna, 2004).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Syria. (London, 1899).
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