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NEW The antoninianus is named for Caracalla, who introduced it in 215 A.D. This coin is from the first year of issue for this new double denarius denomination. If you are collecting one coin of each emperor, your Caracalla coin should be an antoninianus!SL113473. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV p. 253, 281b; RSC III 359; BMCRE p. 461, 172; Hunter III p. 87, 43; SRCV II 6777, NGC Ch XF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (4161488-005), weight 2.70 g, maximum diameter 20 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 216 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate head right; reverse P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Sol standing slightly right, radiate, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand; from a Virginia Collector, ex dabigkahuna (eBay, 17 Dec 2012); NGC| Lookup; $170.00 (€159.80)
Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RS112532. Silver denarius, RIC III AP351a, RSC II 32, BMCRE IV AP373, SRCV II 4578, Hunter II 23, VF, radiating flow lines, toned, small edge cracks, scratch, weight 3.288 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right, hair elaborately waived and banded, drawn up at the back and piled in a round coil at top; reverse AETERNITAS, Providentia standing slightly left, head left, globe in extended right hand, holding veil blown out behind head in left hand; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 129 (4 Jun 2023), lot 997 (part of); $140.00 (€131.60)
Tacitus, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.
Serdica prospered under Rome. Turrets, protective walls, public baths, administrative and cult buildings, a civic basilica and a large amphitheater were built. When Diocletian divided Dacia into Dacia Ripensis (on the banks of the Danube) and Dacia Mediterranea, Serdica became the capital of Dacia Mediterranea. The city was destroyed by the Huns in 447, but was rebuilt by Justinian and surrounded with great fortress walls whose remnants can still be seen today. Although also often destroyed by the Slavs, the town remained under Byzantine dominion until 809. Serdica is today Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.RB111872. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC 3897 (11 spec.), RIC V-1 192, BnF XII 1779, Cohen VI 26, La Venèra 2391, aVF, dark patina, scratches, porosity, tiny edge split, weight 3.425 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, issue 2, early 276; obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONSERVAT MILIT, Mars on left, standing right, wearing helmet and military garb, holding spear in left hand, offering globe in right hand to Tacitus, Emperor on right, standing left, wearing military garb, receiving globe with right hand, long scepter or inverted spear in left hand, A in center, KA in exergue; ex Glen W Woods; scarce; $110.00 (€103.40)
Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
In 230 A.D., Severus Alexander made Thessaly a separate province from Macedonia. He increased taxes in order to maintain the war against the Sassanids and strengthened the defenses of the Roman Empire.RS112596. Silver denarius, RSC III 401, RIC IV 105a, BMCRE VI 616, SRCV II 7911, Hunter III 55 var. (slight drapery), VF, choice obv., flow lines, edge cracks, weight 2.894 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 230 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder; reverse P M TR P VIIII COS III P P, emperor standing right in military dress, laureate, transverse spear in right hand, globe in left hand; from the Collection of Dr. Jüregen Buschek; $110.00 (€103.40)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
NEW The reverse is dedicated to blessed tranquility (peace) and advertises that Constantine has completed his vows (prayers) to achieve 20 years of successful rule (VOTIS XX). On this coin, an engraving error has OVTIS XX on the altar.RL113176. Billon centenionalis, cf. RIC VII Trier p. 194, 342 (VOT/IS XX on altar); SRCV IV 16177 (same, bust); Hunter p. 171, 57 (same, no pellet in ex.), VF, green patina, unusual rev. inscription error, weight 2.565 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate bust right wearing consular trabea, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS (blessed tranquility), globe on altar inscribed OV/TIS / XX (sic! engraving error) in three lines, three stars above, PTR• in exergue; from the Michael Arslan Collection, ex Savoca Coins blue auction 163 (14 May 2023), lot 1469; $110.00 (€103.40)
Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.
NEW Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RS112932. Silver denarius, Hunter III p. 116, 37 (also obv. leg. unbroken); RIC IV 130; RSC III 244; BMCRE V 158; SRCV II 7541, Choice VF, well centered, flow lines, die wear, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.876 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 219 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind; reverse PROVID DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Providentia standing slightly left, head left, legs crossed, leaning with left elbow on column, rod in right hand held over over globe at feet on right, cornucopia in left hand; $100.00 (€94.00)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
NEW During Gordian's reign, the Roman Empire was threatened on multiple fronts. In 238, Goths from Ukraine crossed the Danube and devastated the Roman Empire up to the border with Anatolia. In 240, Africa revolted. Also in 240, Franks from northwest Germania raided the Rhine frontier. In 242, the cities of the Cimmerian Bosporus were evacuated because Goths controlled the territory.RB111708. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 306a, Cohen V 254, Hunter III 114, SRCV III 8731, F, well centered on a tight flan, porous, edge cracks, weight 11.887 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 241 - 242 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse P M TR P IIII COS II P P (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for 4 years, consul 2 times, father of the country), Gordian standing right, wearing military garb, transverse spear in right hand, globe in extended left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $80.00 (€75.20)
Valentinian II, 17 November 375 - 15 May 392 A.D.
After the defeat of Maximus, Valentinian and his court were installed at Vienne, Gaul. Theodosius' trusted general, the Frank Arbogast, was appointed magister militum for the Western provinces (except Africa) and guardian of Valentinian. Acting in the name of Valentinian, Arbogast was actually subordinate only to Theodosius. Arbogast's domination over the emperor was considerable, he even murdered Harmonius, Valentinian's friend, suspected of taking bribes, in the emperor's presence. The crisis reached a peak when Arbogast prohibited the emperor from leading the Gallic armies into Italy to oppose a barbarian threat. Valentinian, in response, formally dismissed Arbogast. The latter ignored the order, publicly tearing it up and arguing that Valentinian had not appointed him in the first place. The reality of where the power lay was openly displayed. Valentinian wrote to Theodosius and Ambrose complaining of his subordination to his general. On 15 May 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in Vienne. Arbogast maintained that the emperor's death was suicide. Most sources agree, however, that Arbogast murdered him with his own hands, or paid the Praetorians. Valentinian's Christian beliefs make suicide unlikely.RL112089. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Antioch 46(d)3, LRBC II 2690, cf. SRCV V 20308 (controls), Hunter V 48 (same), VF, nice desert patina with highlighting earthen deposits, weight 2.624 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA AVGGG (harmony among the three emperors), Roma seated facing on throne, head left, helmeted, left leg bare, globe in right hand, reversed spear in left hand, Θ (control) left, ANTΓ in exergue; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $80.00 (€75.20)
Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
In 323, Constantine the Great defeated invading Goths and Sarmatians north of the Danube in Dacia, and claimed the title Sarmaticus Maximus.RT112169. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 372, SRCV IV 16731, Cohen VII 22, VF, well centered, green patina, mild roughness, weight 2.260 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust left, spear over shoulder in right hand, oval shield on left shoulder; reverse BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS (blessed tranquility), altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX in three lines, surmounted by celestial globe, three stars above, •STR• in exergue; from Shawn Caza former diplomat, author of A Handbook of Late Roman Coins (Spink, 2021), collection assembled during postings and international travel; ex Agora Vienna (Reinhard Dollinger); $65.00 (€61.10)
Byzantine Empire, Constantine VII and Romanus I Lecapenus, 17 December 920 - 16 December 944 A.D.
Constantine VII became sole emperor while he was a minor. He was dominated by his regents and was not allowed to take part in government. His regent Romanus I was made co-emperor in 920. In 945 Romanus I was deposed by his sons who wanted the throne. Instead Constantine VII took control. Finally, when he was 40 years old, he had sole rule and real power.BZ112956. Bronze follis, DOC III-2 25, Sommer 36.16, Morrisson BnF 37/Cp/AE/31, Wroth BMC 19, Ratto 1886, SBCV 1760, gF, green patina, centered on a tight irregularly shaped flan, rev. die damage, cleaning marks, weight 5.920 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 931 - 944 A.D.; obverse + RWmAn' bASILEVS RWM' (or similar), Romanus I facing, bearded, wearing jeweled chlamys and crown with cross, globus cruciger in left, transverse labarum in right; reverse + RWMA/n' En ΘEW bA/SILEVS RW/mAIWn in four lines; $55.00 (€51.70)