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Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.SH94301. Gold aureus, RIC IV 23 (R), Calicó 3213, Cohen IV 195, SRCV III 8579, Hunter - (p. lxxxiii), gVF, well centered and struck, flow lines, bumps, light scrape on obverse, weight 4.732 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Rome mint, special emission, early 239 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P II COS P P (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for two years, consul, father of the country), Providentia standing left, globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left; scarce; $4700.00 (€4230.00)
Tacitus, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.RA91193. Silvered antoninianus, MER-RIC 4105 (17 spec.), RIC V-1 210, BnF XII 1827, Hunter IV 71, Venèra -, Choice EF, full silvering, full border centering, nice portrait, weight 4.455 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, issue 3, Jan - Jun 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Emperor (on left) standing right, holding eagle tipped scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter, Jupiter standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, long scepter vertical in left hand, H in center, XXI in exergue; $190.00 (€171.00)
Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius
Faustina I was the wife of Antoninus Pius. Little is known of her, except that she was regarded as vain and frivolous, though this may have just been malicious gossip. Antoninus Pius loved her greatly, and upon her death in 141 A.D., she was deified and a temple was built in her honor. RB92446. Orichalcum sestertius, BMCRE IV AP1487, Hunter II 91, RIC III AP1103(a) var. (no stephane), Cohen II 17, SRCV II 4606, aVF, dark patina, scattered porosity/light corrosion, weight 22.770 g, maximum diameter 32.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, posthumous, c. 147 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, veiled and draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair piled in a coil on top; reverse AETERNITAS, Aeternitas seated left, draped and veiled, nimbate phoenix right on globe in right hand, transverse long scepter in left hand, feet on footstool, S C (senatus consulto) across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $170.00 (€153.00)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
The Latin word comiti, during imperial times, indicated a minister of the emperor. Even the two consuls where called "comites." The reverse legend therefore reads: "to the unconquered Sun, minister [of Constantine]."RL92323. Billon follis, RIC VII Trier 161 (R4), SRCV IV 16064, Cohen VII 525, Hunter V -, Choice EF, excellent portrait, well centered and struck, flow lines, attractive toned bronze surfaces, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.655 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 317 - 318 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing right, radiate, head left, raising right hand commanding sunrise, raising globe in left hand, chlamys over shoulders and left arm and hanging behind, F - T divided across fields, BTR in exergue; first specimen of this very rare variety handled by FORVM; very rare; $160.00 (€144.00)
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. According to Strack III, p. 129, the idea behind the type is that the safety of the state is dependent on the health of the emperor. "For that reason Salus holds the rudder of Fortuna in some of these types, as an indication that the fate of the empire rests in her hands." RB92443. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC III 798, BMCRE IV 1732, Cohen II 279, SRCV II 4269, Hunter II -, gVF, excellent portrait, attractive toning, adjustment marks, porous, weight 14.367 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 145 - 161 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P, radiate head right; reverse COS IIII, Salus standing half left, head left, patera in right hand, feeding snake coiled around altar at feet on left, rudder on globe in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $160.00 (€144.00) ON RESERVE
Tacitus, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.
Although Ares was viewed by the Greeks primarily as destructive and destabilizing, worthy of contempt and revulsion, for the Romans, Mars was a father (pater) of the Roman people. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.RS92338. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T4028 (13 spec.), BnF XII 1804, Venèra 2414 - 2416, RIC V-1 127 corr. (2nd officina not listed, Ticinum in error), Hunter IV -, Choice EF, well centered with full legends, some silvering, scattered tiny pits, weight 4.053 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, issue 3, Jan - Jun 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Mars on left, standing right, wearing military garb, holding spear with point up in left hand, offering globe with right hand, Aurelian on right, standing left, wearing military garb, long scepter in left hand, receiving globe from Mars with right hand, S in exergue; $130.00 (€117.00)
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RB92486. Bronze as, RIC IV 519 (S); Hunter III 83; BMCRE V p. 412, 259; Cohen IV 533, SRCV II -, VF, nice style, corrosion, small edge splits, weight 9.631 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 211 - 213 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverse PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Providentia standing facing, head left, baton in right hand held over globe at feet, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $120.00 (€108.00)
Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
Constantine II was the son of Constantine I, the eldest with his second wife, Fausta. He was made Caesar before he was a year old. Upon his father's death, Constantine II inherited the Western empire. After quarreling with his brother, Constans, he invaded his territory, only to be killed in an ambush near Aquileia.RL89939. Billon reduced follis, RIC VII Siscia 37 (R3), SRCV IV 17110, Cohen VII 50, Hunter V -, Choice aEF, excellent centering, attractive green patina, flow lines, weight 3.201 g, maximum diameter 20.35 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, as caesar, 317 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLARITAS REIPVBLICAE (the renown of the Republic), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe in left hand, ΓSIS in exergue; scarce; $115.00 (€103.50)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
In 241 Timesitheus was appointed the head of the Praetorian Guard, Gordian married his daughter Tranquillina, and she received the honorific title of Augusta. The marriage indicates Gordian correctly understood that Timesitheus was indispensable. Timesitheus died under suspicious circumstances in 243. Not long after losing his protector, Gordian was murdered by mutinous soldiers in February 244. RB92623. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 306a, Cohen V 254, Hunter III 114, SRCV III 8731, VF, well centered, attractive style, part of reverse legend weak, slight double strike, some porosity, edge flaw, edge cracks, weight 22.690 g, maximum diameter 32.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 241 - 242 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P IIII COS II P P (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for 4 years, consul 2 times, father of the country), Gordian standing right, wearing military garb, transverse spear in right hand, globe in extended left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $110.00 (€99.00)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
David Sear notes, "It is tempting to regard the cross in the reverse field as an early instance of Christian symbolism on the Constantinian Coinage."RL89937. Billon follis, RIC VII Ticinum 45, SRCV IV 16088, Cohen VII 536, Hunter V -, Choice VF, excellent centering, turquoise-green patina, weight 2.994 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, cross left, star right, PT in exergue; $105.00 (€94.50)