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Judaea, Achaemenid Persian Yehud Province, c. 375 - 332 B.C.
Yehud, or Yehud Medinata (Aramaic for Province of Judah), was a province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire which corresponded to the previous Babylonian province of Yehud, which was formed after the fall of the kingdom of Judah to the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 597 B.C. The territory, which was ruled by mostly Jewish governors, was considerably smaller and held a far smaller population than the kingdom of Judah before the Babylonian conquest. Yehud existed until the area was incorporated into the empires of Alexander the Great and his successors.JD99502. Silver G-L-F Yehud type 15 (O1/R1), Hendin 6062 (RR), Menorah Coin Project YHD 15 (01/R1), Meshorer TJC -, Sofaer -, Spaer Coll. -, HGC 10 -, F, dark toning, off center, weight 0.339 g, maximum diameter 8.3 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem (or nearby) mint, c. 350 - 332 B.C.; obverse incense bowl with flame and smoke; reverse falcon upward, head right, wings open, Aramaic (YHD) on right, read right to left (upward); Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; very rare; $3300.00 (€3102.00)
Roman Republic, Anonymous, c. 280 B.C.
The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as. HUGE 50.5 mm and 83.3 gram bronze!SH110921. Aes grave (cast) triens, Crawford 14/3 var. (pellets below dolphin); Thurlow-Vecchi 3a var. (same); Haeberlin pl. 39, 15 var. (same); HN Italy 270 var. (same); Sydenham 10, VF, dark green patina, earthen deposits, a few flan flaws, weight 83.342 g, maximum diameter 50.5 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, heavy series, c. 280 B.C.; obverse fulmen (thunderbolt), four pellets (mark of value) divided across field; reverse dolphin swimming right, four pellets (mark of value) above; ex CNG auction 90 (23 May 2012), lot 1278; ex L.C. Aes Grave Collection; this coin is the only specimen on Coin Archives and the only specimen known to FORVM with the pellets above the dolphin, HUGE 50.5 mm and 83.3 gram bronze!; extremely rare variant; $2250.00 (€2115.00)
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Ephesos, Ionia
In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor the Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could establish cults and build temples for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. Communitas Asiae (Community of Asia) was pro-consular Roman province comprised of Lydia, Iconia, Caria, Mysia, Phrygia, and Hellespontus.SL113456. Silver cistophorus, RPC Online I 2221, RIC I 120 (R3, Pergamon), RSC II 3, BMCRE I 228, SRCV I 1838, NGC F, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (2400265-002), weight 10.53 g, maximum diameter 26 mm, die axis 180o, probably Ephesos (near Selcuk, Turkey) mint, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVD CAES AVG, bare head left; reverse Temple of Roma and Augustus, two columns, podium with four steps, within temple Augustus and Roma stand facing, Augustus in military garb with spear in right hand and shield in left, Fortuna crowns him with wreath in right hand and holds cornucopia in left hand, ROM ET AVG (Roma and Augustus) on entablature, COM - ASI (Communitas Asiae) across field at center; from a Virginia Collector, ex Eastern Numismatics Inc. (Garden City, NY, 17 Jan 2013, $1695); NGC| Lookup; very rare; $1700.00 (€1598.00)
Byzantine Empire, Levante or Alexandria, c. 5th - 6th Century A.D., Jewish Menorah Lead Token
The purpose of Byzantine era lead tokens is unknown. Many appear closely related to seals differing only by the absence of a cord or channel for attachment to a container or document. Many late Roman and early Byzantine seals have a figural type on one side and a legend in two lines in Latin or Greek on the other side. Seals with a menorah are known, usually with a blank globular reverse, but some also have a name on the other side.JD98657. Lead token, personal token of Rodanos(?); Roma e-sale 53 (7 Feb 2019), lot 504 (same dies), VF, highlighting earthen deposit desert patina, weight 3.077 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 180o, c. 5th - 6th century A.D.; obverse Menorah of seven branches, flanked by lulav on left and etrog on right; reverse POΔA/NOY in two lines across field, palm frond above; ex CNG e-auction 435 (2 Jan 2019), lot 401; extremely rare; $1440.00 (€1353.60)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
A decursio was a military exercise, by which Roman soldiers were taught to make long marches in a given time, under arms and without quitting their ranks. They sometimes consisted of a mock fight between two divisions. Augustus and subsequently Hadrian ordered that the infantry and cavalry were to march out three times a month ten miles from the camp and ten miles back, fully armed and equipped. Decursio on this coin probably refers Nero's participation in mock military maneuvers in the circus.SL111603. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 168 (S); BMCRE I p. 226, 142; BnF II -; Hunter I -; SRCV I -, ANACS VF30 (7432075, says Lugdunum mint in error), dark spots are where the plastic holder is in contact with the coin, weight 27.15 g, maximum diameter 35.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left; reverse DECVRSIO, Nero and a soldier on horseback prancing right, Nero bear headed, wearing cuirass and short tunic, and holds spear in right hand, soldier, on far side and slightly behind, holds vexillum in right over shoulder, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking high across field; ex Classical Coins; ANACS| Verify; $970.00 (€911.80)
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.SH110382. Orichalcum sestertius, Göbl MIR 83s, RIC V-1 J249, Cohen V 1298, Hunter IV J33 var. (obv. leg. no P F); SRCV III 10495 var. (same), Choice VF, superb portrait, well centered on a squared unusually full flan, double strike, weight 22.146 g, maximum diameter 32.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder and back; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (the virtue of the two emperors), Virtus standing front, head left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right hand resting on grounded oval shield, inverted spear in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across the field below center; ex Leu Numismatik auction 17 (14 Aug 2021), lot 2813; $720.00 (€676.80)
Persian Empire, Samaria, c. 375 - 332 B.C.
Samaria was the capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel in the 9th - 8th centuries B.C. The Assyrians took the city and the northern kingdom in 722/721 B.C. The city did not recover until the Persian period, the mid 5th century. The tensions between the ruling Sanballat family and Jerusalem under the governorship of Nehemiah are documented in the Bible (Ezra 4:10, Neh 4:7–8). Samaria became Hellenistic in 332 B.C. Thousands of Macedonian soldiers were settled there following a revolt. The Judaean king John Hyrcanus destroyed Samaria in 108 B.C., but it was resettled under Alexander Jannaeus. In 63 B.C., Samaria was annexed to the Roman province of Syria. Herod the Great fortified the city and renamed it Sebaste. The ruins are located in the Samaria mountains almost 10 km to the northwest of Nablus.JD110671. Silver ma'ah-obol, Meshorer-Qedar 20, Sofaer 43, Sunrise 139, Hendin -, SNG ANS -, HGC 10 -, gVF, toned, obv. off center, tight flan, weight 0.640 g, maximum diameter 9.7 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria (Sebastia, West Bank) mint, c. 375 - 332 B.C.; obverse head of satrap left, bearded, wearing kyrbasia (Persian tiara); reverse Persian king on right, standing left, fighting winged beast, he holds the animal’s head in his right hand and dagger in his left hand, Aramaic SMRYN in right field; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 289 (10-11 Oct 2022), lot 449; ex Gert Cleff Collection (Wuppertal); ex Numismatica Ars Classica (Zurich) auction 64 (2012), lot 1609; rare; $630.00 (€592.20)
Persian Empire, Samaria, c. 375 - 332 B.C.
"Perhaps this person is the Sanballat II referred to by Josephus as the one who "had been sent to Samaria as satrap by Darius the last king." -- Gide to Biblical Coins, p. 85, by David HendinJD110670. Silver ma'ah-obol, cf. Meshorer-Qedar 52, Sofaer 70 - 71, Hendin 6039 (RR), HGC 10 410 (R2), SNG ANS - (all with different style), gVF, toned, centered on a tight flan, mildly etched surfaces, weight 0.706 g, maximum diameter 8.9 mm, die axis 180o, Samaria (Sebastia, West Bank) mint, c. 375 - 332 B.C.; obverse head of the Persian great king right, wearing crenelated crown; reverse lion left, square border of dots, Aramaic SN (Sanballat II?) above (off flan), within an incuse square; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 289 (10 Oct 2022), lot 428; ex Gert Cleff Collection (Wuppertal); ex Gorny & Mosch auction 142 (10 Oct 2005), lot 1667; rare; $540.00 (€507.60)
Judaea, Bar Kochba Revolt, 132 - 135 A.D., Irregular Issue
The Bar Kokhba revolt, led by Simon bar Kokhba, was the last of the major Jewish–Roman wars. The Roman army suffered heavy losses. It took six full legions, auxiliaries, and elements from as many as six more legions three years to crush the revolt. The Romans annihilated much of the Judean population. In 134, the they captured Jerusalem and Simon bar Kokhba was killed in 135. Legio VI Ferrata rebuilt the legionary fortress in Jerusalem and constructed a Roman temple at Golgotha. An altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple. The Jewish diaspora began as Hadrian barred Jews from Jerusalem and had survivors of the massacre dispersed across the Roman Empire. Many were sold into slavery. The Jewish people remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.JD111382. Bronze AE 27, Hendin 6464a, cf. Mildenberg 187, Sofaer 96 - 97, Meshorer TJC 259, aVF, well centered, crude irregular style and epigraphy, weight 12.017 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, undated, year 3, 134 - 135 A.D.; obverse paleo-Hebrew inscription: "for the freedom of Jerusalem", three-lobed grape leaf on a tendril; reverse seven branched palm tree with two bunches of dates, paleo-Hebrew inscription "Shimon" (Simon) divided by trunk; $540.00 (€507.60)
Persian Empire, Samaria, c. 375 - 332 B.C.
Samaria was the capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel in the 9th - 8th centuries B.C. The Assyrians took the city and the northern kingdom in 722/721 B.C. The city did not recover until the Persian period, the mid 5th century. The tensions between the ruling Sanballat family and Jerusalem under the governorship of Nehemiah are documented in the Bible (Ezra 4:10, Neh 4:7–8). Samaria became Hellenistic in 332 B.C. Thousands of Macedonian soldiers were settled there following a revolt. The Judaean king John Hyrcanus destroyed Samaria in 108 B.C., but it was resettled under Alexander Jannaeus. In 63 B.C., Samaria was annexed to the Roman province of Syria. Herod the Great fortified the city and renamed it Sebaste. The ruins are located in the Samaria mountains almost 10 km to the northwest of Nablus.GS110668. Silver ma'ah-obol, Meshorer-Qedar 188, Sofaer 165, HGC 10 -, Sunrise -, Hendin -, SNG ANS -, VF, centered, toned, light marks, die break upper reverse, weight 0.614 g, maximum diameter 9.7 mm, die axis 180o, Samaria (Sebastia, West Bank) mint, c. 375 - 332 B.C.; obverse head of the satrap right, bearded, wearing Kyrbasia (Persian tiara); reverse head right, bare-headed, bearded; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 289 (10 Oct 2022), lot 422; ex Gert Cleff Collection (Wuppertal); ex Italo Vecchi (London) auction 10 (24-25 Mar 1998), lot 436; rare; $450.00 (€423.00)
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