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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Peace||View Options:  |  |  | 

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.

Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The Roman's believed Jupiter granted protection and success to his favorites, who tended to be people in positions of authority similar to his own.
RL94805. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 349, RIC V-2 928, Cohen VI 87, SRCV III -, Choice VF, excellent portrait, nice dark green patina with highlighting earthen deposits, weight 3.822 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 180o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse CLEMENTIA T-EMP (time of peace and calm), Probus standing right, wearing military garb, holding eagle-tipped scepter in left hand, with right hand receiving globe from Jupiter, Jupiter standing left, long scepter in left hand, nude but for paludamentum on shoulders, crescent with horns up low center, KA in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The Roman's believed Jupiter granted protection and success to his favorites, who tended to be people in positions of authority similar to his own.
RL94817. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 351 (same reverse legend breaks), RIC V-2 928, Cohen VI 87, SRCV III -, Choice VF, well centered, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 3.754 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 0o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, c. 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Probus standing right, eagle-tipped scepter in left, with right receiving globe from Jupiter, standing left, long scepter in left hand, crescent with horns up low center, KA in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarcer mint; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 280, Julius Saturninus, the governor of Syria, was made emperor by his troops. Probus besiege him at Apamea, where he was captured and executed.
RL94802. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 341 (also 5th officina), RIC V-2 921, SRCV III 11960, Cohen VI 87, Pink VI-1 p. 40, 2, VF, green patina, earthen deposits, closed flan crack, light marks, weight 3.192 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), emperor standing right, holding eagle tipped scepter in left hand, receiving globe from Jupiter with right hand, E lower in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $55.00 SALE PRICE $49.50


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA94196. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 603a, Cunetio 1193, RSC IV 727, RIC V-1 S256, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, gVF, much silvering, edge a bit ragged, weight 3.079 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 9th emission, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, ∆ left; $50.00 SALE PRICE $45.00


Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

|Hadrian|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |117| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.||aureus|
The rabbit on the reverse is in reference to the Roman province of Hispania Baetica and the issue is an appeal for the aid of the gods as during Hadrian's first travels around the empire, leaving Rome in 121. On this example, Minerva is shown in her "peace-giving" aspect versus her more often seen guise of war.
SH34690. Gold aureus, Calico 1309 var. (obv legend break), RIC II 70 var. (same plus portrait and spear vice scepter); BMCRE III 117 - 118 var. (same); SRCV II -, VF, some circulation marks, weight 7.129 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 119 - 122 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HA-DRIANVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right from behind; reverse P M TR P COS III, Minerva standing facing, helmeted head left, long scepter in left hand, right hand pointing to Spanish olive tree on left, rabbit right at the base of the tree; ex Munzhandlung Basel, 6 March 1936 (Dr. H St. S & Prince Waldeck); very rare; SOLD


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D.

|Tiberius|, |Tiberius,| |19| |August| |14| |-| |16| |March| |37| |A.D.||aureus|
In 36 A.D., Pontius Pilate was recalled to Rome after putting down a Samaritan uprising. Marcellus became governor of Judaea and Samaria.
SH30618. Gold aureus, Giard Lyon, group 5, 151; RIC I 29 (R); BMCRE I 47; Calico 305c (S.3); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760, gVF, attractive red tone, weight 7.709 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 135o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 36 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, laurel wreath ties fall in small undulations (waves); reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with decorated legs, a single line below, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, feet on footstool; ex Bosco Reale Hoard, Pompeii 1898; rare; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

|Vespasian|, |Vespasian,| |1| |July| |69| |-| |24| |June| |79| |A.D.||aureus|
In 72 A.D. the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, a desert fortress, the last outpost of Jewish rebels after the First Jewish Revolt ended in 70 A.D. Legio X Fretensis surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. In the spring of 73 A.D., when defeat became imminent, 960 Zealots under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir committed mass suicide.
SH64148. Gold aureus, Calico I 656, RIC II 1180, BMCRE II 403, Cohen I 284, F, ding at 12 o, weight 7.128 g, maximum diameter 13.9 mm, die axis 270o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 72 - 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPAS AVG P M TR P IIII P P COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse PACI AVGVSTI, winged Pax-Nemesis advancing right, pulling out a fold of drapery below her neck with her right hand, holding caduceus downward in left over snake at feet; ex January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C Auction, lot 2033; SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
The reverse legend translates, "The gates of Janus' temple are closed because peace of the Roman people is set on both land and sea." On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war the doors of the 'Twin Janus' were ceremonially closed, an event Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65 - 67 A.D. -- Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1 by David R. Sear
SH45882. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 354, BnF I 429, Mac Dowall WCN 171, Cohen I 139, BMCRE I -, Hunter I -, SRCV I -, VF, exceptional style, scratches in fields, weight 25.185 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 67 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P XIII PP, laureate head right; reverse PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, lateral view of the Temple of Janus with garland over closed doors within arch, temple front on the left, the right side of the temple with long latticed window to the right, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking at sides; ex A H Baldwin & Sons (Fixed Price List Winter 2008, 1600), ex Mnzhandlung Ritter; SOLD


Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.

|Otho|, |Otho,| |15| |January| |69| |-| |17| |April| |69| |A.D.||denarius|
From the Prof. Henry H. Armstrong collection. In 1910, when he purchased this coin, Professor Armstrong lived in Rome working as a Research Associate of the Carnegie Institution in Archaeology teaching at the American School for Classical Studies. From 1918 until his death in 1935 he taught at Beloit College as head of the Department of Romance Languages. Nicknamed "Sparky" by the students, his death after a two-week illness came as a shock to the college. His coins, inherited by his son, sat in a cigar box for the next 74 years.
SH39592. Silver denarius, RIC I 8 (R2), RSC II 17, BMCRE I 18, BnF III 10, Hunter I C3807, SRCV I 2162, VF, beautiful rainbow toning, weight 3.057 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Feb - Mar 69 A.D.; obverse IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right; reverse SECVRITAS P R (security of the people of Rome), Securitas standing slightly left, head left, wreath in right hand, long scepter in left hand; exceptional full flan and beautiful old "cigar box" collection rainbow toning; from the Prof. Henry H. Armstrong collection, handwritten envelope notes, "Alcott sold for $3.50 for very good. Purchase, Champion, 1910."; rare; SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
The reverse legend translates, "The gates of Janus' temple are closed because peace of the Roman people is set on both land and sea." On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war the doors of the 'Twin Janus' were ceremonially closed, an event Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65 - 67 A.D. -- Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1 by David R. Sear
SL96449. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 583, Mac Dowall WCN 475, BMCRE I -, Cohen I -, Hunter I -, SRCV I -, NGC AU, strike 5/5, surface 2/5, scuff (5745271-004), weight 30.31 g, maximum diameter 35.0 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 66 - 67 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head right, globe at the point of the bust; reverse PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, view of the Temple of Janus from the front left corner, temple front on the right with garland over closed doors within arch, the left side of the temple to the left with long latticed window, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; ex Heritage NYINC Sale 3081 (12 Jan 2020), lot 30178; ex Roma e-auction 4 (29 Nov 2018), lot 733; ex Private European Collection; NGC| Lookup; SOLD







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