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Syracuse, Sicily, Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was restored in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. Syracuse fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately Syracuse was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened.
The star on the reverse could represent Halley's comet which was visible for 75 days in 466 B.C. GB88328. Bronze hemilitron, ex Ancient Imports Calciati II p. 39, 16; Favorito Signedtype 74 (c. 425-420 BC); SNG ANS 398; SNG München 1100; HGC 2 1481 (S); BMC Sicily -, VF, the finest classical style, attractive glossy dark green and black patina, patina flaking (stable), weight 4.484 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, Syracuse mint, c. 410 - 405 B.C.; obverse ΣVPA, head of nymph Arethusa left, wearing diadem and pearl necklace, E (signature of the master engraver Euaninetos) behind; reversestar of eight rays within incusecircle in center of quadripartite incuse square; $360.00 (€306.00)
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Invincible Sol charging in a facing quadriga and raising his hand commanding the sun to rise, is one of our favorite reverses of the Roman Imperial series and Forum's recommended coin type for Probus. If you only plan to buy one Probus coin, it should be this type!RA87626. Billonantoninianus, Hunter IV 315 (also 2nd officina); Pink VI-1, p. 44, em. 3; RIC V-2 911; Cohen VI 682; SRCV III 12041, Choice EF, full circle centering, most silvering remains, uneven strike with part of legends a littl weak, weight 4.298 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, emission 3, 280 A.D.; obverseIMP CM AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiatebust left in consular robe, eagle-tipped scepter in right; reverseSOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand commanding sunrise, whip in left hand, CM below center, XXIS in exergue; $150.00 (€127.50)
Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tripolis ad Maeandrum, Lydia
Tripolis on the Meander (Tripolis ad Maeandrum, also Neapolis, Apollonia, and Antoninopolis) was on the borders of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia, on the northern bank of the upper course of the Maeander, and on the road leading from Sardes by Philadelphia to Laodicea ad Lycum. It was 20 km to the northwest of Hierapolis. The earliest mention of Tripolis is by Pliny (v. 30), who treats it as Lydian. Ptolemy (v. 2. § 18) and Stephanus of Byzantium describe it as Carian. Hierocles (p. 669) likewise calls it Lydian. Some modern academics have placed it in Phrygia. The ruins of Tripolis ad Maeandrum mostly date from the Roman and Byzantine periods and include a theater, baths, city walls, and a necropolis. An ancient church, dating back 1,500 years, was unearthed in 2013.RP87200. Bronze AE 19, RPC I 3056, SNG Cop 743, SNGvA 3317, SNG München 809, Waddington 2681, Weber 3407, gF, green patina with red earthen highlighting, flatly struck, minor edge chipping, pits on reverse, weight 3.711 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 0o, Tripolis ad Maeandrum (near Yenicekent, Turkey) mint, magistrate Menandrou Metrodoros Philokaisar; obverse TIBEPION KAICAPA TPI/ΠOΛEITAI, laureate head right; reverse MENAN∆POC ΦIΛOKAICAP, radiatehead of Helios right, O/T/∆ in right field; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 47 (9 Oct 2016), lot 327; scarce; $120.00 (€102.00)
Kingdom of Commagene, Epiphanes and Callinicus, 72 A.D.
In 72 A.D., only two years after Antiochus IV, King of Commagene, sent troops, commanded by his son Epiphanes, to aid Titus in the siege of Jerusalem, he was accused by the governor of Syria of conspiring with Parthia against Rome. After a reign of thirty-four years from his first appointment by Caligula, Antiochus was deprived of his kingdom. He retired first to Sparta, and then to Rome, where he passed the remainder of his life and was treated with great respect. Antiochus' sons, Epiphanes and Callinicus briefly ruled the kingdom but after an encounter with Roman troops, fled to Parthia. They later joined their father in Rome.SH90336. Bronze AE 21, RPC I 3861; BMC Galatia p. 110, 1 ff.; De Luynes 3440; SGICV 5515, F, dark patina, red earthen deposits, weight 7.954 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 45o, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey) mint, 72 A.D.; obverseEpiphanes and Callinicus riding left on horseback, each wearing chlamys, BACIΛEΩC / YIOI in exergue; reverse KOMMAΓHNΩN, Capricorn right, star above, anchor flukes left below, all within laurel wreath, border of dots; ex John Jencek; $100.00 (€85.00)
Pharkadon, Thessaly, Greece, 400 - 344 B.C.
Farkadona is located about halfway between the cities Larissa to the east, and Trikala to the west, at about 30 km from both, on the Thessalian Plain, near the river Pineios. The crescent shape on the reverse does not look much like a normal lunar crescent. It may depict a crescent shaped comet that, as Pliny the Elder described, appeared at the time of the Battle of Salamis, c. 480 B.C. This naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks. GB88329. Bronze dichalkon, BCD Thessaly II 623.1 (same obverse die), BMC Thessaly 9 var (?), HGC 4 310 (R1), F, green patina, a little rough, inscription and star weakly struck, weight 4.154 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 270o, Pharcadon (near Klokoto, Farkadona, Greece) mint, 400 - 344 B.C.; obverse horse grazing right, legs straight; reverse narrow crescent with horns downward, over star, ΦAPK,∆ONO starting in exergue; ex Ancient Imports (2010); $100.00 (€85.00)
Pontos (Uncertain City), c. 119 - 100 B.C.
The comets depicted are almost certainly the comets described in Justin's epitome of the Historiae Philippicae of the Augustan historian Pompeius Trogus (Justin 37.2.1-2): "The future greatness of this man [Mithridates Eupator] had been foretold by heavenly portents. For both in the year in which he was born [134/133 B.C.] and in the year in which he first began to rule [120/119 B.C.], a comet gleamed so brightly for 70 days throughout each period that the whole sky seemed to be on fire. In its extent, each of these comets filled one quarter of the sky and surpassed the sun in brilliance. They took four hours to rise and four hours to set."GB84563. Bronze AE 12, SNG BM 984; SNG Stancomb 653; Lindgren III 154; HGC 7 317, VF, small flan, slightly off center, green patina with buff earthen highlighting, weight 1.623 g, maximum diameter 12.2 mm, Pontos, uncertain mint, c. 119 - 100 B.C.; obverse horse-head right, with comet star of eight points and central pellet on neck; reverse comet star of seven points, central pellet, and tail to right; ex Agora Auctions sale, lot 25; very rare; $95.00 (€80.75)
Cales, Campania, Italy, c. 265 - 240 B.C.
The Romans captured Cales in 335 B.C. and established a colony in 334 with Latin rights of 2,500 citizens. It was an important base in the war against Hannibal. Before 184 B.C. more settlers were sent there. After the Social War it became a municipium. Its fertile territory and manufacture of black glazed pottery, which was even exported to Etruria, made it prosperous. Inscriptions name six gates of the town: and there are considerable remains of antiquity, especially of an amphitheater and theater, of a supposed temple, a Roman necropolis, and other edifices.GB73620. Bronze AE 20, SNG Cop 309; HN Italy 436, SNG ANS 183, cf. BMC Italy p. 79, 23 (star of eight rays vice O below), F, green patina, tight flan, weight 6.161 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 225o, Cales (Calvi Risorta, Italy) mint, c. 265 - 240 B.C.; obverse CALENO, laureate head of Apollo left, star behind; reverseman-faced bull right, star of sixteen rays above, Θ (or O?) below, CALENO in exergue; $85.00 (€72.25)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."RS76202. Silver denarius, RIC IV 111, RSC IV 39, Choice VF, excellent portrait, well centered, toned, porous, light marks, weight 3.115 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1 Jan 241 - Jul 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseAETERNITATI AVG, Sol standing slightly right, radiatehead left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand; $70.00 (€59.50)
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D.
The Roman's believed Jupiter, as the king of the gods, favored those in positions of authority similar to his own. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. This unusual reverselegend dedicates this coin to Jupiter defender of the health of the Emperor. The seven stars on the reverse may refer to the seventh centenary (700 year anniversary) of the founding of Jupiter's great Capitoline temple.RS85045. Silver denarius, RIC III 256 (R), RSC II 245, BMCRE IV 349, SRCV II 5651, Hunter II - (clviii), F, centered on a tight flan, toned, marks and scratches, edge cracks, weight 2.482 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 191 - 192 A.D.; obverse L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate head right; reverse IOVI DEFENS SALVTIS AVG, Jupiter moving left, looking back right, brandishing thunderbolt overhead in right hand, scepter in left hand, drapery at waist flying behind, seven stars around; rare; $55.00 (€46.75)
Pontos (Uncertain City), c. 119 - 100 B.C.
The comets depicted are almost certainly the comets described in Justin's epitome of the Historiae Philippicae of the Augustan historian Pompeius Trogus (Justin 37.2.1-2): "The future greatness of this man [Mithridates Eupator] had been foretold by heavenly portents. For both in the year in which he was born [134/133 B.C.] and in the year in which he first began to rule [120/119 B.C.], a comet gleamed so brightly for 70 days throughout each period that the whole sky seemed to be on fire. In its extent, each of these comets filled one quarter of the sky and surpassed the sun in brilliance. They took four hours to rise and four hours to set." GB89142. Bronze AE 12, SNG BM 984; SNG Stancomb 653; Lindgren III 154; HGC 7 317, VF, weight 1.706 g, maximum diameter 11.8 mm, Pontos, uncertain mint, c. 119 - 100 B.C.; obverse horse-head right, with comet star of eight points and central pellet on neck; reverse comet star of seven points, central pellet, and tail to right; ex Agora Auctions sale, lot 25; very rare; $50.00 (€42.50)