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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Medieval & Modern Coins| ▸ |Crusaders||View Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of the Crusaders

The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th and 13th century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe's pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Near East 1135

Crusaders, County of Edessa, Baldwin II, Second Reign, 1108 - 1118

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |County| |of| |Edessa,| |Baldwin| |II,| |Second| |Reign,| |1108| |-| |1118||follis|
Baldwin II was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. He accompanied his cousins Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin of Boulogne to the Holy Land during the First Crusade.
CR98527. Bronze follis, Metcalf 115; Malloy Crusaders 12; Schlumberger pl. I, 12, aVF, light deposits, slightly rough, overstruck on an Islamic fals, weight 3.646 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, Edessa (Urfa, Turkey) mint, 2nd reign, 1108 - 1118; obverse Count Baldwin standing facing, wearing helmet and chain armor, sword with blade upright in right hand, long cross in left hand, B/[∆-N] (Greek abbreviation: Baldwin) in fields; reverse nimbate bust of Christ facing, pellet in each arm of nimbus cruciger, [IC - XC] (Greek abbreviation: Ihsos Xrists - Jesus Christ) flanking; ex Leu Numismatik web auction 16 (22 May 2021), lot 4212; $450.00 (468.00)


Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, James II, 1460 - 1473 A.D.

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Kingdom| |of| |Cyprus,| |James| |II,| |1460| |-| |1473| |A.D.||sixains| |(sezin)|
John II was the illegitimate son of John II of Cyprus. At the age of 16, he was appointed to the archbishopric of Nicosia. After murdering Iacopo Urri, the royal chamberlain, on 1 April 1457, he was deprived of the archbishopric and fled to Rhodes. He was pardoned by his father, and the archbishopric was returned to him. In 1458, his father died, and his half-sister Charlotte became Queen of Cyprus. In 1460, with support from the Egyptian Mamluk sultan Sayf ad-Din Inal, James challenged her right to the throne, blockading her and her husband, Louis of Savoy, in the castle of Kyrenia for three years. When Charlotte fled to Rome in 1463, James was crowned king. James died a few months later in, amidst some suspicion that he might have been poisoned by agents of Venice, possibly by his wife Catherine's uncles.
CR99073. Bronze sixains (sezin), Metcalf 808 ff. var. (legends), Malloy Crusaders p. 307, 165 var. (same); Schlumberger VIII 6 var. (same), VF, dark patina, some porosity, weight 1.731 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Cyprus mint, 1186 - 1194; obverse + IACOBUS DE GRAIA X (James by the grace of God), lion rampant left; reverse + XX REX IDERUSAIm (King of Jerusalem), cross of Jerusalem; ex Zeus auction 16 (26 Feb 2021), lot 869; $110.00 (114.40)


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, William or Minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1280 - 1294

|Greece|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Duchy| |of| |Athens,| |William| |or| |Minority| |of| |Guy| |I| |de| |La| |Roche,| |1280| |-| |1294||denier| |tournois|
This type was minted either under William de La Roche, 1280 - 1287, or during the minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1287 - 1294. William I de la Roche succeeded his brother, John I, as Duke of Athens in 1280. William reversed the territorial losses of his brother's reign, extending his control over Lamia and Gardiki. He married Helena Angelina Komnene, daughter of John I Doukas, ruler of Thessaly, securing a military alliance with him.Frankokratia_Map
CR98083. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades 1051, Malloy Crusaders p. 387, 89a, aVF, toned, porous, weight 0.931 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 90o, Thebes mint, c. 1280 - 1294; obverse +:G:DVX:ATENES:, cross patte; reverse +:ThEBE:CIVIS:, castle tournois with closed corner circles, surmounted by cross; $100.00 (104.00)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR98525. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. III, 50; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 3a; Schlumberger pl. II, 6, aVF, tight ragged flan, porosity, areas of weak strike, light scrapes, weight 3.744 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. 1101 - 1103; obverse nimbate bust of St. Peter (patron saint of Antioch) facing, short curly hair and curly beard, scroll in right hand, cross in left hand, O / ΠE-TP/O/C (TP ligate) divided across field; reverse + / KE BOI /ΘH TO ∆V / ΛO COV T / ANKPI (O Lord, help your servant Tancred) in five lines; ex Leu Numismatik, auction 16 (22 May 2021), lot 4202; ex J. Knudsen collection (formed from the late 1970s to the late 1990s); $100.00 (104.00)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR98529. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 3, 50; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 3a; Schlumberger pl. II, 6, aVF, colorful patina, light deposits, weight 2.877 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse nimbate bust of St. Peter (patron saint of Antioch) facing, short curly hair and curly beard, scroll in right hand, cross in left hand, O / ΠE-TP/O/C (TP ligate) divided across field; reverse + / KE BOI /ΘH TO ∆V / ΛO COV T / ANKPI (O Lord, help your servant Tancred) in five lines; ex Leu Numismatik, auction 16 (22 May 2021), lot 4200; $100.00 (104.00)


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1289

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Charles| |II| |of| |Anjou,| |1285| |-| |1289||denier| |tournois|
Charles II succeeded his father, Charles I, in Achaea as well as Sicily (now reduced to the Kingdom of Naples), but he was a prisoner in Aragonese hands. In the interim, the rule of Achaea devolved upon a series of baillis chosen from the Morean nobility. Not long after his release and coronation in 1289, he granted the Principality to Isabelle of Villehardouin upon her marriage with Florent of Hainaut, in part to redress the greedy application of the Treaty of Viterbo at William's death. However, he retained feudal overlordship over the Principality, and his grant provided that neither Isabelle nor any daughter who was her heir might marry without his consent.Charles_II_of_Anjou
CR96937. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders p. 360, 12 (S); Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 942; Tzamalis Frankish KA101; Schlumberger XII 17, aF, light toning, flan flaws, weight 0.469 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 135o, Clarentza mint, 1285 -1289; obverse + KRPRINC ACh (curly foot R = Clarentza mint), cross patte within inner border; reverse :DE: CLARENCIA (colons indicate double x stops, DE probably abbreviates denarius, curly foot R = Clarentza mint), castle tournois surmounted by cross dividing legend; from the Louis G Estate; scarce; $80.00 (83.20)


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1289

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Charles| |II| |of| |Anjou,| |1285| |-| |1289||denier| |tournois|
Charles II succeeded his father, Charles I, in Achaea as well as Sicily (now reduced to the Kingdom of Naples), but he was a prisoner in Aragonese hands. In the interim, the rule of Achaea devolved upon a series of baillis chosen from the Morean nobility. Not long after his release and coronation in 1289, he granted the Principality to Isabelle of Villehardouin upon her marriage with Florent of Hainaut, in part to redress the greedy application of the Treaty of Viterbo at William's death. However, he retained feudal overlordship over the Principality, and his grant provided that neither Isabelle nor any daughter who was her heir might marry without his consent.Carlos_I
CR99074. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders p. 360, 12 (S); Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 942; Tzamalis Frankish KA101; Schlumberger XII 17, F, tiny edge split, weight 0.761 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, Clarentza mint, 1285 -1289; obverse + KRPRINC ACh, cross patte; reverse :DE: CLARENCIA: (colons indicate double x stops), castle tournois; scarce; $80.00 (83.20)


Kingdom of Italy, Lucca, Henry III - V of Franconia, 1039 - 1125 A.D.

|Italy|, |Kingdom| |of| |Italy,| |Lucca,| |Henry| |III| |-| |V| |of| |Franconia,| |1039| |-| |1125| |A.D.||denaro|
The Republic of Lucca, which lasted from 1160 to 1805, was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the city of Lucca in Tuscany. Its territory extended include the north-western part of today's Tuscany, to the borders with Emilia-Romagna and Liguria. Autonomy was granted by a 1084 diploma issued by Emperor Henry IV, while on his Italian campaign during the Investiture Controversy with Pope Gregory VII. After the death of Margravine Matilda of Tuscany in 1115, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune. The administration was officially acknowledged by Margrave Conrad in 1120 and by Emperor Frederick in 1162. The city bought the feudal rights from Margrave Welf VI in 1160, hence became subject only to the emperors. The Republic of Lucca remained independent until 1799, when it became subject to Napoleonic Franc. In 1805 it was made the Principality of Lucca and Piombino.
ME89022. Silver denaro, cf. Biaggi 1058, Metcalf Crusaders 10 - 15, MIR Toscana 107 - 109, VF, toned, die wear, reverse double struck, weight 0.935 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 0o, Lucca mint, c 1039 - 1125 A.D.; obverse + IMPERATOR, monogram (H formed two Ts joined by central crossbar) within circle; reverse + ENRICVS, LVCA cross-wise around pellet in center; $60.00 (62.40)


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, Guy II de La Roche, 1287 - 1308

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Duchy| |of| |Athens,| |Guy| |II| |de| |La| |Roche,| |1287| |-| |1308||denier|
Guy II de la Roche was the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth, power, and importance. Guy was originally under the tutorship and regency of his mother, Helena Angelina Komnene, who was forced to make submission to Isabella of Villehardouin. In 1299, Guy was engaged to Matilda, daughter of Isabella and and her husband, Florent of Hainaut. Charles objected, as his permission had not been sought, but Pope Boniface VIII intervened on the young couple's behalf. In 1307, Guy was made bailli of Achaea by its new prince, Philip I of Taranto. He governed well, but for barely a year. He died, 5 October 1308, at the age of twenty-eight, but was respected and renowned for his chivalry and manners.Frankokratia_Map
CR96941. Billon denier, cf. Metcalf Crusades 1e & pl. 42, 1071 - 1072; Malloy Crusaders p. 388, 94, F, porous, tight irregularly shaped flan, small edge splits, edge chip, weight 0.677 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 270o, Thebes mint, majority, 1294 - 1308; obverse +:GVIDVX:ATENES:, cross patte within inner border; reverse uThEBAHI:CIVISu (u = small crescent with horns up), castle tournois surmounted by cross dividing legend; from the Louis G Estate; $60.00 (62.40)


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, Guy II de La Roche, 1287 - 1308

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Duchy| |of| |Athens,| |Guy| |II| |de| |La| |Roche,| |1287| |-| |1308||denier|
Guy II de la Roche was the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth, power, and importance. Guy was originally under the tutorship and regency of his mother, Helena Angelina Komnene, who was forced to make submission to Isabella of Villehardouin. In 1299, Guy was engaged to Matilda, daughter of Isabella and and her husband, Florent of Hainaut. Charles objected, as his permission had not been sought, but Pope Boniface VIII intervened on the young couple's behalf. In 1307, Guy was made bailli of Achaea by its new prince, Philip I of Taranto. He governed well, but for barely a year. He died, 5 October 1308, at the age of twenty-eight, but was respected and renowned for his chivalry and manners.Frankokratia_Map
CR96943. Billon denier, cf. Metcalf Crusades 1e & pl. 42, 1071 - 1072; Malloy Crusaders p. 388, 94, F, uneven strike with parts of legends weak, small encrustations, ragged edge with small split and chips, weight 0.516 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 90o, Thebes mint, majority, 1294 - 1308; obverse :+:GVI·DVX:ATENES, cross patte within inner border; reverse uThEBAHI:CIVISu (u = small crescent with horns up), castle tournois, surmounted by cross dividing legend; from the Louis G Estate; scarce; $60.00 (62.40)




  



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REFERENCES|

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