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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Medieval & Modern Coins ▸ CrusadersView Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of the Crusaders

The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th and 13th century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rûm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe's pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Near East 1135


Lot of 9 Silver Trams, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Levon I the Magnificent, 1198 - 1219 A.D.

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LT89471. Silver Lot, 9 silver trams, c. 21.7 - 25.2mm, some with star, VF, unattributed, no tags or flips, actual coins in the photographs, as-is, no returns; $380.00 (€323.00)
 


Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199

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After one particularly memorable feast, which put Richard in great good humor, he impulsively knighted his cook, making him "lord of the fief of the kitchen of the counts of Poitou." Arise, Sir Cook! -- https://www.historyextra.com/period/medieval/8-things-you-probably-didnt-know-about-richard-the-lionheart/
ME87771. Silver denier, Elias 8b (S), Duplessy Feodales 926, Poey d'Avant 2536, SCBC-SII 8008 var. (no annulet), VF, toned, tiny edge split, weight 1.019 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 165o, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border, annulet in third (lower left) quarter; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
 


Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199

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The only coins of Richard struck in his own name are those of his French possessions; English issues attributed to Richard are all in the name and types of his father, Henry II. Richard I is known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionhearted for his bravery in battle. He was born and spent his childhood in England. By the age of 16, Richard had command of his own army and put down rebellions against his father in Poitou. As king, he was off on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France, spending as little as 6 months of his 10-year reign in England. He spoke French and Occitan, but never learned English. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, it seems he saw it primarily as a source of revenue to support his armies. As the leader of the Third Crusade after the departure of Philip II of France, he won considerable victories against Saladin, but did not retake Jerusalem. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and is one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. The legendary Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest during Richard's reign.
ME87772. Silver denier, Elias 8b (S), Duplessy Feodales 926, Poey d'Avant 2536, SCBC-SII 8008 var. (no annulet), VF, uneven strike, reverse triple strike, weight 0.943 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 30o, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border, annulet in third (lower left) quarter; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
 


Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199

Click for a larger photo
The only coins of Richard struck in his own name are those of his French possessions; English issues attributed to Richard are all in the name and types of his father, Henry II. Richard I is known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionhearted for his bravery in battle. He was born and spent his childhood in England. By the age of 16, Richard had command of his own army and put down rebellions against his father in Poitou. As king, he was off on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France, spending as little as 6 months of his 10-year reign in England. He spoke French and Occitan, but never learned English. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, it seems he saw it primarily as a source of revenue to support his armies. As the leader of the Third Crusade after the departure of Philip II of France, he won considerable victories against Saladin, but did not retake Jerusalem. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and is one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. The legendary Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest during Richard's reign.
ME87774. Silver denier, Elias 8b (S), Duplessy Feodales 926, Poey d'Avant 2536, SCBC-SII 8008 var. (no annulet), VF, uneven and double strike, weight 0.768 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 90o, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border, annulet in third (lower left) quarter; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
 


Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199

Click for a larger photo
The only coins of Richard struck in his own name are those of his French possessions; English issues attributed to Richard are all in the name and types of his father, Henry II. Richard I is known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionhearted for his bravery in battle. He was born and spent his childhood in England. By the age of 16, Richard had command of his own army and put down rebellions against his father in Poitou. As king, he was off on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France, spending as little as 6 months of his 10-year reign in England. He spoke French and Occitan, but never learned English. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, it seems he saw it primarily as a source of revenue to support his armies. As the leader of the Third Crusade after the departure of Philip II of France, he won considerable victories against Saladin, but did not retake Jerusalem. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and is one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. The legendary Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest during Richard's reign.
ME87775. Silver denier, Elias 8b (S), Duplessy Feodales 926, Poey d'Avant 2536, SCBC-SII 8008 var. (no annulet), VF, toned, uneven strike, weight 1.080 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 90o, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border, annulet in third (lower left) quarter; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
 


Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199

Click for a larger photo
The only coins of Richard struck in his own name are those of his French possessions; English issues attributed to Richard are all in the name and types of his father, Henry II. Richard I is known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionhearted for his bravery in battle. He was born and spent his childhood in England. By the age of 16, Richard had command of his own army and put down rebellions against his father in Poitou. As king, he was off on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France, spending as little as 6 months of his 10-year reign in England. He spoke French and Occitan, but never learned English. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, it seems he saw it primarily as a source of revenue to support his armies. As the leader of the Third Crusade after the departure of Philip II of France, he won considerable victories against Saladin, but did not retake Jerusalem. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and is one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. The legendary Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest during Richard's reign.
ME87776. Silver denier, Elias 8b (S), Duplessy Feodales 926, Poey d'Avant 2536, SCBC-SII 8008 var. (no annulet), aVF, toned, areas of weak strike, weight 1.154 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 45o, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border, annulet in third (lower left) quarter; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
 


Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199

Click for a larger photo
The only coins of Richard struck in his own name are those of his French possessions; English issues attributed to Richard are all in the name and types of his father, Henry II. Richard I is known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionhearted for his bravery in battle. He was born and spent his childhood in England. By the age of 16, Richard had command of his own army and put down rebellions against his father in Poitou. As king, he was off on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France, spending as little as 6 months of his 10-year reign in England. He spoke French and Occitan, but never learned English. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, it seems he saw it primarily as a source of revenue to support his armies. As the leader of the Third Crusade after the departure of Philip II of France, he won considerable victories against Saladin, but did not retake Jerusalem. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and is one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. The legendary Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest during Richard's reign.
ME87777. Silver denier, Elias 8, Duplessy Feodales 920, Poey d'Avant 2506, SCBC-SII 8008, VF, uneven strike with weak areas, weight 0.969 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 135o, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field; $180.00 (€153.00)
 


Anglo-Gallic, Richard I the Lionhearted, Count of Poitou and King of England 1189 - 1199

Click for a larger photo
The only coins of Richard struck in his own name are those of his French possessions; English issues attributed to Richard are all in the name and types of his father, Henry II. Richard I is known as Richard Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionhearted for his bravery in battle. He was born and spent his childhood in England. By the age of 16, Richard had command of his own army and put down rebellions against his father in Poitou. As king, he was off on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France, spending as little as 6 months of his 10-year reign in England. He spoke French and Occitan, but never learned English. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, it seems he saw it primarily as a source of revenue to support his armies. As the leader of the Third Crusade after the departure of Philip II of France, he won considerable victories against Saladin, but did not retake Jerusalem. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and is one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. The legendary Robin Hood lived in Sherwood Forest during Richard's reign.
ME87778. Silver denier, Elias 8, Duplessy Feodales 920, Poey d'Avant 2506, SCBC-SII 8008, VF, toned, uneven strike with weak areas, weight 1.161 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 315o, Melle (Deux-Sèvres) mint, 1189 - 1199; obverse + RICARDVS REX (King Richard), cross pattée within inner dot border; reverse PIC/TAVIE/NSIS ([County of] Poitou) in three lines across field; $180.00 (€153.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles I of Anjou, 1278 - 1285

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Charles I (early 1226/1227 – 7 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou. He was Count of Provence (1246–85) and Forcalquier (1246–48, 1256–85) in the Holy Roman Empire, Count of Anjou and Maine (1246–85) in France; he was also King of Sicily (1266–85) and Prince of Achaea (1278–85). In 1272, he was proclaimed King of Albania; and in 1277 he purchased a claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.Carlos_I

CR88453. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 950; Tzamalis Frankish KA203; Malloy Crusaders 11 (S), VF, toned, small edge cracks, overstruck on an earlier coin(?), weight 0.680 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 270o, Corinth mint, 1278 - 1285; obverse + ▼K• R• PRINC' ACH' (R with wedge shaped foot = Corinth mint), cross pattée; reverse ▼CLARENCIA▼(R with wedge shaped foot = Corinth mint), castle tournois surmounted by cross; scarce variety; $160.00 (€136.00)
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1289

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Charles II succeeded his father, Charles I, in Achaea as well as Sicily (now reduced to the Kingdom of Naples), but he was a prisoner in Aragonese hands. In the interim, the rule of Achaea devolved upon a series of baillis chosen from the Morean nobility. Not long after his release and coronation in 1289, he granted the Principality to Isabelle of Villehardouin upon her marriage with Florent of Hainaut, in part to redress the greedy application of the Treaty of Viterbo at William's death. However, he retained feudal overlordship over the Principality, and his grant provided that neither Isabelle nor any daughter who was her heir might marry without his consent.Frankokratia_Map

CR88454. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 12 (S); Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 942; Tzamalis Frankish KA101; Schlumberger XII 17, VF, toned, light marks, weight 0.974 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 90o, Clarentza mint, 1281 - 1289; obverse + • K• R• PRINC ACh• (curly foot R = Clarentza mint), cross pattée; reverse :DE: CLARENCIA: (colons indicate double x stops, DE probably abbreviates denarius, curly foot R = Clarentza mint), castle tournois surmounted by a cross; scarce; $160.00 (€136.00)
 




  



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REFERENCES

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Bedoukian, P. Coinage of Cilician Armenia. ANSNNM 147. (1962).
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Boutin, S. Monnaies des Empires de Byzance - Collection of N.K. Volumes 1-2. (Maastricht, 1983).
Grierson, P. & L. Travaini. Medieval European Coinage, Vol. 14: Italy III: South Italy, Sicily, Sardinia. (Cambridge, 1998).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Malloy, A., I. Preston, & A. Seltman. Coins of the Crusader States, 2nd Edition. (New York, 2004).
Metcalf, D. Coinage of the Crusaders and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford. (London, 1995).
Metcalf, D. "Coinage of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the name of Baudouin" in NC 1978.
Nercessian, Y. Armenian Coins and Their Values. Armenian Numismatic Society, Special Publication 8. (Los Angeles, 1995).
Phillips, M. "The 'Roupen' Hoard of Helmet Pennies of Antioch" in NC 2005.
Porteous, J. "Crusader Coinage with Greek or Latin Inscriptions" in A History of the Crusades, vol. IV. (Madison, 1989).
Sabine, C. "The billon and copper coinage of the crusader country of Tripoli, c. 1102-1268" in NC 1980.
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Schlumberger, G. Numismatique de l'Orient latin. (1878; Supplement 1882; reprinted: Graz, 1954).
Sommer, A. Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Münzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Sotheby's. The John J. Slocum Collection of Coins of the Crusades, catalog of public auction, London, 6 Mar 1997.
Travaini, L. "Hohenstaufen and Angevin denari of Sicily and Southern Italy: their mint attributions" in NC 1993.
Tzamalis, A. "Addition to the tornesia of the 1st group of Guillaume de Villehardouin" in NK 11 (1992).
Tzamalis, A. "The first period of the Frankish tornesio. New evidence from an old hoard" in NK 9-10 (1990-1991).

Catalog current as of Monday, March 18, 2019.
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Crusader Coins