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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Byzantine Coins| ▸ |Latin Crusader Rule||View Options:  |  |  |   

Latin Rule, 12 April 1204 - 25 July 1261 A.D.

The Empire of Romania, more commonly known as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261. The Latin Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204. The Latin Empire failed to attain political or economic dominance over the other Latin powers, especially Venice, and after a short initial period of military successes it went into a steady decline. Weakened by constant warfare with the Bulgarians and the unconquered sections of the empire, it eventually fell when Byzantines recaptured Constantinople under Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261. The last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century.Latin Empire Map

|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
After the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the crusader army sacked Constantinople. For 57 years Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes, until the city was recovered by the Byzantine Greeks in 1261. The Latins failed to take the entire empire and were resisted by the Byzantine Greek successor states, the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. Out of these three, the Nicaeans succeeded in displacing the Latin emperors in 1261 and restored the Byzantine Empire.
BZ98881. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, Lianta 73; DOC IV-2 18; SBCV 2038; CLBC I 11.17.1; Hendy type R, pl. 27, 6-7; Sommer 68.16, VF, scyphate, brown patina, overstruck on a clipped flan, off center, weight 3.232 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 1204 - 1261; obverse Christ seated facing on backless throne, bearded, nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, right hand raised in benediction, Gospels in left hand, IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: IΗΣOΣ XPIΣTOΣ - Jesus Christ) flanking above shoulders; reverse facing full length figure of the Virgin Orans, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium, MP - ΘV (Greek abbreviation: MΗTΗP ΘΕOY - Mother of God) flanking nimbus; first specimen of this type handled by FORVM; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
BZ36569. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, Lianta 107; SBCV 2055; DOC IV, pt. 2, 24; Hendy, type A, pl. 28, 1 - 4; Sommer 68.30; CLBC I 11.23.1; Grierson 1262, gVF, scyphate, double struck, weight 2.716 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, c. 1210 - 1220; obverse IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: Jesus Christ), Christ seated facing on throne, nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, Gospels in left, stars above arms of throne; reverse half-length figure of the emperor, wearing stemma, divitsion, collar-piece, paneled loros and crown with pendilia, scepter cruciger in right, globus cruciger in left; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
For 57 years after the crusader armies sacked the city, Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes.
BZ79711. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, SBCV 2048; DOC IV, pt. 2, 34; Hendy, type E, pl 29, 13 - 15; Sommer 68.25; CLBC I 11.24.3, gVF, scyphate, excellent bust of Jesus for the type, weight 1.667 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 1210 - 1220; obverse facing bust of Christ Emmanuel, bearded and nimbate, in tunic and kolobion, scroll in left; reverse emperor standing facing, wearing stemma, divitsion, and chlamys, labarum-headed scepter in right, globus cruciger in left; ex Forum (2008); SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
For 57 years after the crusader armies sacked the city, Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes. This interesting Latin imitation copies a rare type struck by the Byzantines of Nikaea.
BZ19643. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, SBCV 2050; DOC IV, pt. 2, 36b; Hendy, type G, pl. 29, 19 - 20; Sommer 68.27; Wolkow 369 ff., VF, scyphate, weight 1.721 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, obverse MP - ΘY, nimbate Virgin enthroned facing, holding nimbate bust of Christ in her crossed arms; reverse Emperor Theodore, holding labarum, and St. Theodore, holding spear, together holding long scepter topped with a Patriarchal Cross; scarce with this quality of strike and preservation; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
BZ36603. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, DOC IV-1 4; SBCV 2024 (clipped to small module); Hendy, type D, pl. 25, 14 - 15; CLBC I 11.4.1; Sommer 68.6, VF, scyphate, weight 1.404 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 180o, c. 1220 - 1230; obverse nimbate bust of Christ facing, scroll in left, IC - XC flanking nimubus; reverse MANOVHΛ ΔΕCΠOTHC, emperor standing facing, wearing stemma, divitision, loros and sagion, long cruciform scepter in right, globus cruciger in left; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
For 57 years after the crusader armies sacked the city, Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes.
BZ19639. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, SBCV 2044; DOC IV, pt. 2, 30; CLBC I 11.1.3, Lianta 12; Sommer 68.21; Hendy type A (small module), pl. 29, 1, VF, scyphate, weight 1.998 g, maximum diameter 26.3 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 1215 - 1240; obverse MP - ΘY, the Virgin facing, nimbate, holds nimbate head of Christ on breast; reverse emperor standing facing, labarum in right, akakia in left; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
For 57 years after the crusader armies sacked the city, Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes. This coin is from the Balkan Hoard published in Un Trsor Balkanique de Monnaies Byzantines Et Latines Du XIIIme Sicle by Cderic Wolkow. The face of the emperor on the reverse of this coin is enlarged on page 90.
BZ84804. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, Wolkow type A, 1.2, 62 (this coin); SBCV 2044; CLBC I 11.1.3, Lianta 12; Sommer 68.21; DOC IV pl. LII, 30; Hendy type A (small module), pl. 29, 1, VF, scyphate, green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, obverse not fully struck, tiny flan crack, light cleaning scratches, weight 0.720 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 1215 - 1240; obverse MP - ΘY, the Virgin seated facing, nimbate, holds the nimbate head of infant Christ on her breast with both hands, wearing tunic and maphorion; reverse emperor standing facing, long scepter or labarum in right hand, akakia in left hand, wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece, and chlamys; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
For 57 years after the crusader armies sacked the city, Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes.
BZ79721. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, Lianta 114; SBCV 2055; DOC IV, pt. 2, 24; Hendy, type A, pl. 28, 1 - 4; Sommer 68.30; CLBC I 11.23.1; Grierson 1262, gVF, scyphate, very well centered, struck and preserved for the type, weight 1.366 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, c. 1210 - 1220; obverse Christ seated facing on throne, nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, Gospels in left, star left, IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: Jesus Christ) flanking; reverse half-length figure of the emperor, wearing stemma, divitsion, collar-piece, paneled loros and crown with pendilia, scepter cruciger in right, globus cruciger in left; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of Coins of the Crusader States.

For 57 years after the crusader armies sacked the city, Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes.
BZ32030. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, SBCV 2044; DOC IV, pt. 2, 30; CLBC I 11.1.3, Lianta 12; Sommer 68.21; Hendy type A (small module), pl. 29, 1, VF, scyphate, weight 1.384 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 1215 - 1240; obverse MP - ΘY, the Virgin facing, nimbate, holds nimbate head of Christ on breast; reverse emperor standing facing, labarum in right, akakia in left; SOLD


|Latin| |Crusader| |Rule|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Latin| |Crusader| |Rule,| |12| |April| |1204| |-| |25| |July| |1261| |A.D.||aspron| |trachy| |nomisma|
Interesting Latin imitation of a type struck by the Byzantines of Nikaea.
BZ30858. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, SBCV 2050; DOC IV, pt. 2, 36b; Hendy, type G, pl. 29, 19 - 20; Sommer 68.27; Wolkow 369 ff., VF, scyphate, encrusted, weight 1.062 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, obverse MP - ΘY, nimbate Virgin enthroned facing, holding nimbate bust of Christ in her crossed arms; reverse Emperor Theodore, holding labarum, and St. Theodore, holding spear, together holding long scepter topped with a Patriarchal Cross; SOLD




  




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EMPERORS OF THE LATIN EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE

1204 - 1205..... BALDWIN I
1206 - 1216..... HENRY
1216 - 1217..... PETER
1217 - 1219..... YOLANDA (REGENT)
1219 - 1228..... ROBERT I
1228 - 1237..... JOHN OF BRIENNE (REGENT)
1237 - 1261..... BALDWIN II


REFERENCES|

Bates, G. Archaeological Exploration of Sardis: Byzantine Coins. Sardis Monograph 1. (Cambridge, 1971).
Bellinger, A. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Vol. IV, Part 2: The Emperors of Nicaea and Their Contemporaries (1204 - 1261). (Washington D.C., 1966).
Grierson, P. Byzantine Coins. (London, 1982).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Lianta, E. Late Byzantine Coins, 1204 - 1453, in the Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. (London, 2009).
Marchev, V. & R. Wachter. Catalogue of the Late Byzantine Coins, Vol. I, 1082 - 1261 AD. (Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, 2011).
Morrisson, C. Catalogue des Monnaies Byzantines de la Bibliothque Nationale. (Paris, 1970).
Sabatier, J. Description gnrale des monnaies Byzantines. (Paris, 1863).
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Sommer, A. Die Mnzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Mnzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Ratto, R. Monnaies Byzantines et d'autre Pays contemporaines l'poque byzantine. (Lugano, 1930).
Tolstoi, I. Monnaies byzantines. (St. Petersburg, 1913 - 14).
Wolkow, C. Un Trsor Balkanique de Monnaies Byzantines Et Latines Du XIIIme Sicle. (Bruxelles, 2016).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1908).

Catalog current as of Thursday, September 28, 2023.
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