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Theodora, 21 April 1042 - 12 June 1042 and 11 January 1055 - 21 August 1056
Zoe and Theodora, the two elderly daughters of Constantine VIII ruled jointly for 7 1/2 weeks (21 Apr - 12 Jun 1042) following the deposition of Michael V. They were unfit for rule and did not get along. The senator Constantine Monomachus was selected as a husband for Zoe ascended the throne as Constantine IX. Theodora held sole rule for a year and a half after the death of Constantine IX until her death (11 Jan 1055 - 21 Aug 1056). She nominated Michael Stratioticus, a civil servant, as her successor.BZ89542. Gold histamenon nomisma, DOC III, part 2, 1c; SBCV 1837, Wroth BMC 4 var. (pellets in nimbus); Morrison BnF 1 var. (same); Ratto -, Sommer -, VF, broad flan, bumps and scratches, die wear, weight 4.186 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, sole reign, 11 Jan 1055 - 21 Aug 1056; obverse + IhS XIS REX REGNANITInm (Jesus Christ, King of Kings), Christ Pantokrator standing facing on dais, wearing nimbus cruciger with no pellets, pallium and colobium, right hand raised in benediction, book of Gospels cradled in left arm, double border; reverse + ΘEO∆wPA AVΓOVCTA (Theodora, Empress), Theodora (on left) and the Virgin (on left) standing facing, jointly holding labarum between them with pellet on shaft, Theodora with right hand on breast, wearing crown with pendilia, saccos with cross and loros; the Virgin nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium, M - Θ (mother of God) flanking her head; from the Robert Watcher Collection; rare; $1440.00 (€1267.20)
Byzantine Empire, Leontius, 695 - 698 A.D.
Leontius' success as a general forced the Arab Caliph Abd al-Malik to make concessions and pay tribute to Emperor Justinian II; but when war was renewed, Leontius was defeated. Furious over the loss, Justinian imprisoned him for two years. When he was freed, Leontius and his former prison comrades organized a revolt, and he took the throne. Justinian was deposed, his nose and tongue were slit and he was exiled to a monastery. After the Arabs took Carthage, the fleet Leontius sent to retake the city failed. Rather than report defeat to the emperor, the army overthrew their admiral and named Apsimar, a Germanic sailor, as their leader. Apsimar changed his name to Tiberius, returned to Constantinople, seized the thrown, cut off Leontius' nose and ears and exiled him to a monastery. In 705, Justinian II returned to Constantinople with an army of Bulgars and Slavs. Both Leontius and Tiberius were dragged through the streets in chains and beheaded.SH89538. Gold solidus, DOC II part 2, 1b, Morrisson BnF 16/Cp/AV/02, SBCV 1330, Hahn MIB III 1, Sommer 15.1, Wroth BMC -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, EF, mint luster, flow lines, uneven strike with part of obverse legend and mintmark weak, obverse off center, die wear, tight flan, weight 4.319 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople mint, 695 - 698 A.D.; obverse D LEO-N PE AV, bearded facing bust, wearing loros and crown with cross, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse VICTORIA AVSY S, cross potent set on three step, CONOB in exergue; from the Robert Watcher Collection; rare; $1200.00 (€1056.00)
Judaea, Bar Kochba Revolt, 132 - 135 A.D.
These coins are usually overstruck on earlier denarii or drachms. This example is overstruck on a Trajan denarius. SL89834. Silver zuz, Mildenberg 213 (O24/R137); BMC Palestine, p. 299, 79 (same dies, on Trajan drachm); SNG ANS 561 (same dies); Hendin 1435, Meshorer TJC 274, NGC Ch XF, strike 2/5, surface 3/5, overstruck [on a Trajan denarius] (4283488-001), weight 3.24 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Judaean mint, undated issue of year 3, 134 - 135 A.D.; obverse Paleo-Hebrew legend: Shim'on, bunch of grapes in three lobes hanging from branch, which has a tendril to the left and a leaf to the right; reverse Paleo-Hebrew legend: for the freedom of Jerusalem, kithara with three strings; $1000.00 (€880.00)
Judah, Macedonian or Ptolemaic Rule, Satrap Hezekiah, c. 333 - 301 B.C.
Josephus identifies Hezekiah as the High Priest of the Jews who offered friendship to Ptolemy I after his conquest of Palestine. Josephus mentions Hezekiah was sixty years old at the time of Ptolemy. Mildenberg identifies the head right on the obverse of this type as Ptolemy I. SL89836. Silver half ma'ah, Hendin 1066; Meshorer TJC 25; Meshore AJC I 12; Mildenberg Yehud p. 189 & pl. 22, 23; HGC 10 452 (R1 - R2), NGC NGC XF, strike 2/5, surface 3/5 (4283488-002), weight 0.189 g, maximum diameter 7.2 mm, die axis 90o, Jerusalem(?) mint, c. 375 - 333 B.C.; obverse male head (Ptolemy I?) right; reverse forepart of winged and horned lynx left; Aramaic inscription lower right: YHZQYH (Hezekiah); NGC certified with photo certificate of authenticity, not in a plastic holder; rare; $800.00 (€704.00)
Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta
This type celebrates the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the First Jewish Revolt. Coins commemorating this event are referred to as "Judaea Capta" issues. SL91234. Silver denarius, RIC II-1 4 (R), BMCRE II 43, Hunter I 20; RSC II 229; SRCV I 2297; BnF III -, NGC Ch F, strike 4/5, surface 3/5 (4283488-003), weight 3.39 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 21 Dec 69 - early 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse Judaea or Jewess seated right on ground at foot of palm tree behind her, her hands bound behind and tied to the tree, IVDAEA in exergue; rare; $800.00 (€704.00)
Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-21
Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.SH89761. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 4, 150; RIC I 30 (C); BMCRE I 48; RSC II 16a; SRCV I 1763, gVF, toned, highest points struck a bit flat, slightly off center, minor edge flaw at 8:00 on reverse, weight 3.701 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 18 - 35 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with decorated legs, a single line below, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, feet on footstool; $700.00 (€616.00)
Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-21
Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the BibleSH91313. Silver denarius, Giard Lyon, group 1, 144; RIC I 26 (C); BMCRE I 34; RSC II 16; SRCV I 1763, VF, nice portrait, flow lines, die wear, light marks, reverse a little off center, weight 3.632 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 195o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, earliest type, c. 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with plain legs set on base, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; $630.00 (€554.40)
Empire of Trebizond, Manuel I Comnenus, 1238 - 1263 A.D.
Manuel I Megas Komnenos (died March 1263) was an Emperor of Trebizond, from 1238 until his death. At the time Manuel reigned, the Empire of Trebizond comprised a band of territory stretching along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Although Michael Panaretos, a 14th-century Greek chronicler, calls Manuel "the greatest general and the most fortunate" and states he ruled "virtuously in the eyes of God", the only event he documents for Manuel's reign is a catastrophic fire striking the city of Trebizond in January 1253. The major events of his reign are known from external sources, most important of which is the recovery of Sinope in 1254, which had been lost to the Sultanate of Rum forty years before.BZ89548. Silver asper, Sommer T3.20 (same dies), Retowski 217 (same dies), SBCV 2602, aEF, crude style usual for the type, toned, uneven strike, die wear, weight 2.807 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 180o, Trebizond (Trabzon, Turkey) mint, 1238 - 1263 A.D.; obverse A (with circle) /EV/Γ - O / TPA/ΠC/TI/d (C blundered), Saint Eugenius standing facing, long cross in right hand; reverse MH/N/HΛ/o - K/MH/N (MH's ligate), Manuel standing facing, labarum in right hand, globus cruciger in left hand, Manus Dei (hand of God) upper right; nicer than the referenced two plate coins, which are from the same dies; very rare; $500.00 (€440.00)
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Struck by Agrippa II(?), Caesarea Maritima(?), Syria Palestina
Julius Marcus Agrippa was a teenager studying in Rome when his father died. He was too young to rule and his father's kingdom was made a Roman province. About 6 years later, he was given the kingdom of his uncle Herod of Chalcis. Later more was added. It was before Herod Agrippa II that Saint Paul was tried. Agrippa sided with the Romans during the Jewish rebellion. Though he continued to rule until at least 95 A.D., the temple was destroyed and in the end his assigned territories were in Syria, not Judaea. The attribution to a mint at Caesarea Maritima under Agrippa II is traditional, and supported by recorded finds 90% of which are around Caesarea Maritima. Still, it may have been struck at Caesarea Paneas, which better fits the style, or it may have been struck by a Roman procurator. SL89827. Bronze AE 24, RPC I 4848 (6 spec.); Hendin 1263; Meshorer TJC 356; SNG ANS 744; BMC Palestine p. 12, 3; Rosenberger 1; Kadman -, NGC F, strike 4/5, surface 3/5, Agrippa II, 49 - 95, Caesarea (4283488-004), weight 8.78 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 45o, Caesarea Maritima (or Paneas?) mint, c. 49 - Oct 54 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IM P P, laureate head of Claudius right; reverse inverted anchor with ring on each end, within oak wreath; scarce; $500.00 (€440.00)
Byzantine Empire, Nicephorus II Phocas, 16 August 963 - 10 December 969 A.D., with Basil II
This coin has been clipped to less than half its original weight. Most likely it was clipped for mounting in jewelry. It is an excellent size for mounting in a ring.BZ89540. Gold tetarteron nomisma, DOC III part 2, 5.1 (same dies); Morrisson BnF 39/Cp/AV/11; Sommer 38.4; SBCV 1780; Wroth BMC -; Ratto - (none clipped to tremissis), VF, clipped to tremissis weight, light earthen deposits, weight 1.617 g, maximum diameter 11.7 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 16 Aug 963 - 10 Dec 969 A.D.; obverse +•Ihs XΓS REX REGNANTInm (Jesus Christ King of Kings), bust of Christ Pantokrator facing wearing nimbus cruciger with two pellets in each limb of the cross, pallium, and colobium, raising right hand in benediction, Gospels in left hand; reverse +ΘEOTOC' bHΘ' hIEHF dESP' (God-bearer help ruler Nicephorus), facing busts of the Virgin, on left, and Nicephorus, on right, they hold a long patriarchal cross between them, she is nimbate, wears a stola and maphorium and divides M - Θ (mother of God), he has a short beard and wears a crown and loros; from the Robert Watcher Collection; $450.00 (€396.00)
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