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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline| ▸ |Gallienus||View Options:  |  |  |   

Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists, and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.

Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Irenopolis-Neronias, Cilicia

|Cilicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Irenopolis-Neronias,| |Cilicia||7| |assaria|
Wandering the world in a panther-drawn chariot, Dionysos rode ahead of the maenads and satyrs, who sang loudly and danced, flushed with wine. They were profusely garlanded with ivy and held the thyrsus, a staff topped with a pine cone, a symbol of the immortality of his believers. Everywhere he went he taught men how to cultivate vines and the mysteries of his cult. Whoever stood in his way and refused to revere him was punished with madness.
RP96990. Bronze 7 assaria, Karbach Eirenopolis - (cf. 146-7 same obv. die, diff. rev. type); Leu web auction 12 (2020), 870 (same dies); SNG Levante -; SNG Paris -; SNG PFPS -, aVF/F, green patina with earthen deposits, weight 12.523 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 225o, Irenopolis (Düzici, Turkey) mint, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse ΠOY ΛIK Γ/θ>AΛIHNOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; uncertain round countermark; reverse IPHNOΠOΛE (or similar), Dionysos drinking with his entourage, standing facing, kantharos (wine cup) in his right hand, pedum (shepherd's crook) in his left hand, Pan on right supporting him, Satyr on left standing with outstretched right hand, panther seated left at feet on left, Z (mark of value) right; ex Leu Numismatik web auction 13 (15 Aug 2020), lot 921; the second known; $900.00 SALE |PRICE| $810.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Akko-Ptolemais, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Akko-Ptolemais,| |Phoenicia||AE| |27|
Akko was refounded as a Roman colony, colonia Ptolemais, probably in 53 or 54 A.D., the last year of Claudius' reign or the first year of Nero’s. Akko was one of hundreds of cities in the Roman provinces that minted civic coins. In the mid 3rd century cities stopped producing their own coins. The last city coins were struck under Gallienus, and Akko was among the very last cities to strike its own coins.
JD96394. Bronze AE 27, BMC Phoenicia p. 138, 50 var. (obv. leg.); Rosenberger 86 var. (same); Kadman Akko 256 var. (same, draped); Sofaer 293 ff. (draped, etc.); SNG Cop -, aF, rough green patina, light earthen deposits, a little off center, weight 13.158 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, Ake Ptolemais (Acre, Israel) mint, 253 - 268 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES LIC GALLIEN[VS AVG], laureate head right; reverse COL P-TOL, portable shrine containing a statue of Zeus Heliopolites, shrine consisting of a frame within two pillars supporting a architrave with hatched decoration, two carrying poles projecting from bottom, figure of deity within standing facing on rock or base, wearing short chiton, double axe in right hand, harpe(?) in left hand; an unpublished variant of a very rare type; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1977 surface find at Caesarea Maritima, Israel; $440.00 SALE |PRICE| $396.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Roman| |Phoenicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia||dichalkon|
The Tyrians paid supreme adoration to Astarte. Josephus records by Hiram, King of Tyre, built a magnificent temple in honor of Ashtaroth (Astarte). This temple and images of the goddess both appear frequently on coins of the Roman colony. Cicero affirms that the goddess, was the Syrian Venus, who was said to have been married to Adonis (lib. iii. De Nat. Deor.).
RY94945. Bronze dichalkon, Rouvier 2522, Baramki AUB -, BMC Phoenicia -, SNG Cop -, SNG Hunterian -, aF, brown patina, well centered on a tight flan, rough, corrosion, light earthen deposits, weight 15.740 g, maximum diameter 27.3 mm, die axis 180o, Tyre (Lebanon) mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse COL TYRO METRO, portable distyle shrine with carrying bars seen in perspective from off front left corner, roof curving to the rear, open front with ornate columns, another smaller shrine within containing a cult statue (baetyl) of Astarte, murex shell below; from the Ray Nouri Collection, only two sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades (one near VF sold for $1100 plus fees); extremely rare; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $184.00 ON RESERVE


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Ephesos, Ionia

|Ephesos|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Ephesos,| |Ionia||AE| |25|
Agonistic "urns" or "crowns" were awarded to winners at ancient Greek games, similar to modern trophies. They are called "crowns" because they may have been placed on the head of the victor.
RP95365. Bronze AE 25, Karwiese 1131(a1) (O13/R95); SNG Munchen 260; SNG Hunterian XII 1749; SNG Cop 519; SNGvA 7889; SNG Tub -; BMC Ionia -, gVF, well centered on a broad flan, obverse die wear and minor die breaks, weight 6.759 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse AYT K ΠO ΛIKI ΓAΛΛIHNOC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse EΦECIΩN A D• NE•Ω•KOPΩN, agonistic urn (prize crown) containing palm fronds, band across the crown is marked EΦECIAI; from the Errett Bishop Collection; very rare; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $144.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||sestertius|
In 263 A.D., King Odenathus of Palmyra declared himself ruler of the area west of the River Euphrates and was given the title Dux Orientalis by Emperor Gallienus.
RB86184. Orichalcum sestertius, Göbl MIR 92h, RIC V J209, Cohen V 132, Hunter IV J24 corr. (described with aegis), SRCV III 10467, aVF, tight flan, dark green patina with light earthen deposits, some corrosion, a few blue-green spots, tiny edge cracks, weight 16.198 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse CONCORDIA EXERCIT (harmony with the army), Concord standing left holding patera and double cornucopia, S C (senatus consulto) at sides low across field; the lighter blue-green spots are hard, not powdery, and do NOT appear to be active corrosion; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The reverse legend translates Libero Patri Conservatori Augusti, which identifies Liber Pater, a panther sacred to Bacchus, as a protector of the emperor. Gallienus also identified Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, and others on coins as his protectors.
RA93320. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 713b, RIC V-1 S230, Hunter IV 116, Cohen V 586, SRCV III 10281, Normanby -, gVF, nice portrait, well centered, dark patina with copper high points, tight flan, ragged edge cracks/splits, weight 1.895 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 300o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left, B in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Dated legends are very scarce in this period!
RA94162. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1342h, Cunetio 1752, RSC IV 824, RIC V-1 S455 var. (nothing in ex.), SRCV III 10320 var. (same), Hunter IV - (p. xlvi), F, traces of silvering, tight flan, small edge splits, centers weak, light deposits, weight 2.955 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 259 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS P F AVG (or similar), radiate head right; reverse P M TR P VII COS, Emperor seated left on curule chair, veiled, globe in extended right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, MS in exergue; rare; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Antiocheia, Pisidia

|Pisidia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Antiocheia,| |Pisidia||AE| |20|
Paul of Tarsus gave his first sermon to the Gentiles (Acts 13:13-52) at Antiochia in Pisidia, and visited the city once on each of his missionary journeys, helping to make Antioch a center of early Christianity in Anatolia. Antioch in Pisidia is also known as Antiochia Caesareia and Antiochia in Phrygia.
RP97495. Bronze AE 20, SNG BnF 1323 (same obv. die), Krzyzanowska -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Lycia -, VF, brown tone with brassy high points, well centered but tight flan cuts of parts of the obverse legend, weight 3.348 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP CA GALLIHNVS PIVS R, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANTI-OCHI CL, vexillum topped with eagle, flanked by two legionary standards, · S R (Senatus Romanum) in exergue; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

|Roman| |Egypt|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Roman| |Provincial| |Egypt||tetradrachm|
In 268, Germanic Alamanni tribes invades Italy north of the Po River. In November, a Roman army of 35,000 men under emperor Claudius II defeated them along the banks of Lake Garda.
RX93394. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 2944; Milne 4188; BMC Alexandria p. 290, 2229; SNG Cop 802; Kampmann 90.97; Emmett 3804 (R1); Curtis -; Dattari -, VF, superb portrait style, flow lines, porosity/mild corrosion, a little off center on a broad flan, edge cracks, weight 10.192 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 267 - 28 Aug 268 A.D.; obverse AVT K Π ΛIK ΓAΛΛIHNOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse eagle standing left, head turned back right, wreath in beak, palm frond right, L IE (year 15) left; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $75.00 SALE |PRICE| $67.50
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Gallienus paid particular adoration to Mars. He raised a temple to the worship of Mars in the Circus Flaminius and called the god Propugnator (champion or defender). "Mars the Pacifier" may be seen as ironic today, but the Romans knew that victory in war (hopefully including the total destruction of your enemy) is an effective way to achieve peace.
RA94171. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 570w, RSC IV 618c, RIC V-1 S236, SRCV III 10288, Hunter IV S67 var. (no drapery), VF/F, dark brown tone, full legends, flow lines, weight 4.102 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Rome mint, c. 264 - 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse MARTI PACIFERO (to Mars the peacemaker), Mars standing slightly left, head left, wearing helmet and military garb, raising olive branch in right hand, left hand resting on grounded shield, spear leaning on left arm, A (with open top, appearing as H) in left field; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 




  






|OBVERSE LEGENDS|

IMPCAESGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVGCOSV
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGER
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGERM
IMPBALLIENVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERS
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFEL
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG
IMPGALLIENVSVAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENAEAVGVSTAE
GALLIENVMAVGPR
GALLIENVMAVGSENATVS
GALLIENVMPRINC
GALLIENVMSENATVS
GALLIENVSAVG
GALLIENVSAVGGERM
GALLIENVSAVGGERMV
GALLIENVSPAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
GALLIENVSPIVSAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG


REFERENCES|

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Bland, R. & A. Burnett. "Appleshaw, Hampshire" in Normanby Hoard, CHRB VIII (1988), pp. 91-107.
Bourdel, B. Les Antoniniens emis sous le regne conjoint des empereurs Valerien et Gallien, Mariniane, Salonine, Valerien II, Salonin (253-260 Apr. J.-C.). (2017).
Burnett, A. & R. Bland, eds. Coin Hoards from Roman Britain: The Normanby Hoard and Other Roman Coin Hoards. (London, 1988).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham, and P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, |Part| I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) http://numismatics.org/ocre/
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trésor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992).
Seaby, H. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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