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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Roman armies invaded the Iberian peninsula in 218 B.C. and used it as a training ground for officers and as a proving ground for tactics during campaigns against the Carthaginians, the Iberians, the Lusitanians, the Gallaecians and other Celts. It was not until 19 B.C. that Augustus was able to complete the conquest. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed "Callaecia" (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia). From Diocletian's Tetrarchy (A.D. 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces).
Iberia / Hispania, c. 200 - 1 B.C., Lot of 11 Bronze Coins
The following list was provided by the consignor and has not been verified by FORVM: 1) Carteia, Spain, AE20, Neptune standing left, RPC I 122, F, ex RBW 2) p2338) Carteia, Spain, AE17, dolphin / rudder, RPC I 119, aVF, ex RBW 3) Obulco, Spain, AE35, SNG BM Spain 1405, F/Fair, punch on rev. 4) Turiaso, Spain, c. 150 BC, head right / horseman right, F-VF 5) Castulo, Spain, AE26 (12.69g), bare male head right / sphinx right, SNG Cop 211, VF, deep split or cut 6) Carteia, Spain, AE17, turreted head of Tyche right / D D winged figure on dolphin right, RPC I 116, F, ex RBW 7) Another, also ex RBW 8) Castulo, AE29, sphinx right, F, porous 9) Ulia, Spain, AE29, female head right, crescent below, palm before / VLIA framed by branches, Burgos 1977, F, edge chip 10) Gades, AE16, head of Melqart left / dolphin right, F 11) Spain, AE34, male head right / helmeted griffin or sphinx, Fair LT96155. Bronze Lot, Lot of 11 Bronze Coins from Iberia / Hispania, c. 200 - 1 B.C., unattributed to type, no tags or flips, the actual coins in the photograph, as-is, no returns; $190.00 (€155.80)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Colonia Patricia, Hispania Baetica
This type was probably struck for Augusts' visit to Colonia Patricia, c. 15 - 14 B.C.RP98533. Bronze provincial dupondius, Villaronga-Benages 3356, Burgos 1988, RPC I 128, SNG Cop 464, F, dark green patina, a little off center, bumps and marks, scattered corrosion, earthen deposits, weight 22.268 g, maximum diameter 33.3 mm, die axis 270o, Colonia Patricia (Cordoba, Spain) mint, 19 - 2 B.C.; obverse PERMISSV CAESARIS AVGVSTI, bare head right; reverse COLONIA PATRICIA, aquila between two signa; $150.00 (€123.00)
Carmo, Hispania Ulterior, c. 200 - 150 B.C.
Carmo, Hispania Ulterior (modern Carmona), is 33 km east of Seville. It belonged to the Turduli tribe and appears to have been a municipium, appearing in Agrippa's account as oppidum civium romanorum or latinorum. Surprisingly, while Caesar called it one of the most important towns in Baetica, it is not mentioned by Mela and Pliny. Its early remains are buried in the area extending from the present Ayuntamiento to the Plaza de Abastos, where there is a large dolmen. Some graves from the Carthaginian period, with rich grave goods, have been discovered. The name of a certain Urbanibal, of Carthaginian descent, who lived during the Roman period, is preserved on a funeral urn discovered in the Roman cemetery and today in the Carmona museum. Remains of the Roman period include part of the wall, a large temple, the Roman cemetery containing underground tombs, and an amphitheater which is partly cut out of the rock and dates from the last quarter of the 1st century B.C. Sculptures and inscriptions have been found in the town and in the necropolis.GB98534. Bronze AE 33, Villaronga-Benages ACIP 2382 (R1); Villaronga CNH p. 382, 2; SNG BM Spain 1573 ff.; SNG Lorichs 202 ff.; SNG Cop VIII 138, aVF, porous, reverse off center, light earthen deposits, weight 21.446 g, maximum diameter 32.5 mm, die axis 270o, Carmo (Carmona, Seville) mint, c. 200 - 150 B.C.; obverse helmeted male head right, myrtle wreath border; reverse CARMO, between two horizontal lines, grain ear right above, another grain ear right below; $120.00 (€98.40)
Lastigi, Hispania Ulterior, 150 - 100 B.C.
After its defeat in 201 B.C., Carthage ceded Iberia to Rome. In 197 B.C., the peninsula was divided into Hispania Citerior (Nearer Hispania) and Hispania Ulterior (Further Hispania). Hispania Ulterior consisted of what are now Andalusia, Portugal, Extremadura, Castilla y León, Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, and the Basque Country. There was peace in the region until 155 B.C. when the Lusitanians attacked. The area was largely conquered by 138 B.C., but war continued until 19 B.C. when Agrippa defeated the Cantabrians in Hispania Citerior and Hispania finally was completely conquered. That same year, Augustus divided Hispania Ulterior into Baetica (modern Andalusia) and Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura, and part of Castilla-León). Hispania Citerior, which now included Cantabria and Basque country, was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis.GB93425. Bronze quadrans, Villaronga-Benages 2374 (R3), SNG BM Spain 1569 - 1571, Villaronga 4, SNG Cop 165, aF, dark tone, porous, weight 3.504 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 270o, Lastigi (Sancular la Mayor, Sevilla, Spain) mint, 150 - 100 B.C.; obverse helmeted male head right, laurel wreath border; reverse LAS within laurel wreath border; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $70.00 (€57.40)
Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.
Although the style of coinage struck at Western branch mints is different from coins struck at Rome, references and sales listings often attribute them to Rome. This Caligula type is extremely rare. Nearly all were probably overstruck by Claudius. None of the hundreds of Caligula asses on Coin Archives share this Western branch style.SH72086. Copper as, cf. RIC I 38, Cohen I 27, BMCRE I p. 154, 46, SRCV I 1803 (all Rome mint), NGC Ch VF, strike 5/5, surface 4/5 (4162104-002), removed from slab but NGC tag included, weight 11.111 g, maximum diameter 27.2 mm, die axis 270o, 'Western Branch' mint, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left; reverse VESTA, Vesta enthroned left, patera extended in right, long scepter transverse in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; NGC| Lookup; extremely rare; SOLD
Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D., Caesaraugusta, Hispania Tarraconensis
Caesaraugusta is today Zaragoza, Spain. It began as Salduie, a village settled by the Sedetani, an Iberian tribe. Augustus founded Caesaraugusta on the site to settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars. The city did not decline significantly during the last centuries of the Roman Empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths in the 5th century.SH58654. Orichalcum provincial dupondius, RPC I 370, SNG Cop 561, aVF, porosity, weight 10.267 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 270o, Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza, Spain) mint, obverse G CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP, Laureate head left; reverse LICINIANO ET GERMANO II VIR, around large C C A; rare; SOLD
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