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Coins of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic, Manius Fonteius C.f., c. 85 B.C.

|99-50| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Manius| |Fonteius| |C.f.,| |c.| |85| |B.C.||denarius|
Vejovis is a little-known Italian deity. He was worshiped in a temple on the Capitol in Rome. The reverse most likely depicts a statue that was beside the statue of Vejovis in the temple. This statue may refer to the infancy of Jupiter who was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.

The thyrsus is the staff carried by Bacchus and his associates; topped by a pine cone or a bunch of ivy leaves and wreathed with tendrils of vine or ivy.
RR93666. Silver denarius, Crawford 353/1a, Sydenham 724, RSC I Fonteia 9, BMCRR I Rome 2476, Russo RBW 1350, SRCV I 271, gVF, well centered, attractive toning, flow lines, good strike with a little weakness on part of edge, light marks, weight 3.989 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 85 B.C.; obverse MN FONTEI C F (MN and NT in monogram) downward behind, laureate head of Vejovis right, hair falling in four spiral curls, thunderbolt below neck truncation, Roma monogram below chin; reverse Cupid seated on goat right, caps of the Dioscuri above, thyrsus of Bacchus in exergue, all within laurel wreath; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $220.00 (€202.40)


Roman Republic and Central Italy, Middle 5th - 4th Century B.C.

|before| |150| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic| |and| |Central| |Italy,| |Middle| |5th| |-| |4th| |Century| |B.C.||Aes| |Formatum|
In the middle of the 5th century B.C., bronze replaced cattle as the primary measure of value in the Roman Republic and central Italy. Axe heads, rings, cast bronze shells, domed discs, rods, bars, ingots and bricks, traded alongside aes rude. All bronze objects were suitable for trade by their weight and were frequently broken to adjust their weight and to make change.
RR95747. Bronze Aes Formatum, cf. BMCRR I p. 1, Haeberlin pl. 1, Vecchi ICC pl. 1, Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2, Bertol-Farac pl. 1, SRCV I 505; maximum length 63.5mm, weight 215.456g, Italian mint, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C.; $220.00 (€202.40)


Roman Republic, M. Volteius M. f., 78 B.C.

|99-50| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |M.| |Volteius| |M.| |f.,| |78| |B.C.||denarius|
In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Liber (Latin: "the free one"), also known as Liber Pater ("the free Father"), was a god of viticulture and wine, fertility and freedom. He was a patron deity of Rome's plebeians and was part of their Aventine Triad. His festival of Liberalia (March 17) became associated with free speech and the rights attached to coming of age. His cult and functions were increasingly associated with Romanised forms of the Greek Dionysus-Bacchus, whose mythology he came to share.
RR97224. Silver denarius, Crawford 385/3, cf. BMCRR Rome 3160, Sydenham 776, RSC I Volteia 3, Russo RBW 1416, SRCV I 314 (only Crawford list the lizard control symbol), gVF, obverse well centered, bumps and marks, reverse off center, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.417 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 78 B.C.; obverse Wreathed head of Liber or Bacchus right; reverse M VOLTEI M F, Ceres driving biga of serpents right, holding two torches, lizard head upward (control symbol) behind; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 90 (7 Jun 2020), lot 427; $220.00 (€202.40)


Roman Republic, L. Antestius Gragulus, c. 136 B.C.

|150-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |L.| |Antestius| |Gragulus,| |c.| |136| |B.C.||denarius|
This was the first type to use the X value mark (ligate XVI = 16 asses).

L. Antestius Gragulus was a moneyer in 136 B.C., a magistrate, responsible for the production of the Roman coinage. Magistrates were not simple mint workers (monetarii), they were officials who controlled the process, including the design on the coins themselves. During the Roman Republic, moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for casting (and) striking bronze, silver (and) gold (coins)."
RR97226. Silver denarius, Crawford 238/1, Sydenham 451, RSC I Antestia 9, BMCRR Rome 976, Russo RBW 980, SRCV I 115, gVF, nicely toned, flow lines, uneven strike with unstruck area on obverse and reverse, tiny edge splits, weight 3.922 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, c. 136 B.C.; obverse head of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffin head, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing earring and necklace, X below chin; reverse Jupiter in a fast quadriga right, thunderbolt in right hand, long lotus topped scepter and reins in left hand, L•ANTES (ANTE ligate) below horses, ROMA in exergue; ex Auktionshaus Münzhandlung Sonntag; $220.00 (€202.40)


Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

|Italy|, |Osco-Latin,| |Central| |Italy,| |Late| |4th| |-| |Early| |3rd| |Century| |B.C.||Aes| |Formatum|
 
GA96094. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. Fallai IAPN 8, pl. 6, 2-2c; Alvarez-Burgos P28; Thurlow-Vecchi -, weight 22.906 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; similar bronze Aes formatum were cast in molds made from seashells, but this specimen was not cast from a mold made with a shell - the shape and lines are the work of a human hand; $130.00 (€119.60)


Roman Republic, Anonymous, Second Punic War, 211 - 206 B.C.

|before| |150| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Anonymous,| |Second| |Punic| |War,| |211| |-| |206| |B.C.||as|
Janus (or Ianus) was the god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings and endings. He is most often depicted as having two faces or heads, facing in opposite directions. Janus is believed to be one of the few major deities in Roman mythology that does not have a Greek origin or counterpart.
RR88221. Bronze as, Crawford 56/2, Sydenham 143, BMCRR Rome 373 ff., SRCV I 627, F, green patina, crack, porous, weight 29.386 g, maximum diameter 33.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 211 - 206 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Janus, I (mark of value) above, countermark: head right in round punch; reverse war galley prow right, I (mark of value) above, ROMA in exergue; ex Moneta Numismatic Services; $115.00 (€105.80)


Roman Republic, Matienus, c. 179 - 170 B.C.

|before| |150| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Matienus,| |c.| |179| |-| |170| |B.C.||quadrans|
In 178 B.C., the praetor Lucius Postumius Albinus celebrated a triumph in Rome after conquering the Vaccaei and Lusitani during his time as Roman commander in the province of Hispania Ulterior.
RR93754. Bronze quadrans, Crawford 162/6b, Sydenham 321g, BMCRR Italy 410, Russo RBW 717, SRCV I 1096, VF, rough from corrosion, edge cracks, pre-strike casting seam, squared flan resulting from cuts to remove pre-stike casting sprues, weight 7.276 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 179 - 170 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion's scalp headdress, three pellets (mark of value, 3 uncia) behind; reverse prow of a galley right, ROMA above, MAT ligature right, three pellets (mark of value, 3 uncia) below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $100.00 (€92.00)


Uncertain City (Panormos?), Sicily, Roman Rule, c. 211 - 190 B.C.

|Roman| |Italy| |&| |Sicily|, |Uncertain| |City| |(Panormos?),| |Sicily,| |Roman| |Rule,| |c.| |211| |-| |190| |B.C.||triens|
In 254 B.C. Panormus was captured by the Romans. It retained its municipal freedom, and remained for many years one of the principal cities of Sicily. It continued to issue bronze coins, bearing the names of various resident magistrates, and following the Roman system. Under Augustus, Panormus received a Roman colony.
GI89312. Bronze triens, Semuncial standard; Calciati I p. 365, 205 (Panormos); SNG Munchen 835 (Panormos); HGC 2 1691 (R1, uncertain Romano-Sicilian); SNG Cop -, aVF, off center but types on flan, a little rough, weight 3.239 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 90o, uncertain Romano-Sicilian mint, c. 211 - 190 B.C.; obverse veiled and draped bust of Demeter-Ceres left, small cornucopia behind neck; reverse double cornucopia, overflowing with bunches of grapes, tied with fillets, four pellets (mark of value) in a vertical line to left; rare; $90.00 (€82.80)


Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

|Italy|, |Osco-Latin,| |Central| |Italy,| |Late| |4th| |-| |Early| |3rd| |Century| |B.C.||Aes| |Formatum|
 
GA96779. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. Fallai IAPN 8, pl. 6, 2-2c; Alvarez-Burgos P28; Thurlow-Vecchi -, Fair, weight 13.617 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; cast from a bipod shell; $90.00 (€82.80)


Roman Republic, Anonymous (Unofficial?), c. 91 B.C.

|99-50| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Anonymous| |(Unofficial?),| |c.| |91| |B.C.||quadrans|
Russo suspects this type may be unofficial because, despite the attractive style, the prow does not include the usual features found on most coins of the period.
RR88352. Copper quadrans, Russo RBW 1244 (unofficial?), Crawford 339/4a, Sydenham 679c, BMCRR Rome 2208, SRCV I 1195, VF, porous, rough, edge splits, weight 2.114 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial(?) mint, c. 169 - 91 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow right, apotropaic on side, ROMA above, three pellets below; $75.00 (€69.00)










REFERENCES|

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Haeberlin, E. J. Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens. (Frankfurt, 1910).
Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Seaby, H.A., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998).
Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Stannard, C. The local coinages of Central Italy in the late Roman Republic: provisional catalogue, Oct 2007.
Sydenham, E. Aes Grave, a Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. (London, 1926).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).
Thurlow, B. and I. Vecchi. Italian Cast Coinage. (Dorchester, 1979).

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