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Nabataean Kingdom

The early Nabataeans forsook all building and agriculture because those who possess these things, in order to retain them, are easily compelled by the powerful to do their bidding. Rather than fight invaders, they would go into the desert, where only they could survive, and wait for the invaders to leave. Aretas II was a contemporary of Alexander Jannaeus. Aretas III was the first to issue coins, which he began after he defeated the Seleucid army in 84 B.C. and the council of Damascus asked him to govern their city. A Roman army under Marcus Aemilius Scaurus defeated Aretas III and besieged Petra, but paying a tribute, Aretas received formal recognition by the Roman Republic. The kingdom was slowly surrounded by the expanding Roman Empire, who conquered Egypt and annexed Judea, but wealthy from incense trade, Nabataea paid tribute and retained independence. The Nabataeans fought against Herod and also provided forces to the Romans during the Second Jewish Revolt. After the last Nabataean king, Rabbel II, died in 106 A.D., Trajan incorporated Nabataea into the Roman province Arabia Petraea. One of the latest known Nabataean language inscriptions, from 191 A.D., records "...This in the year 85 of the Eparchy [Roman Rule], in which Arabs destroyed the land." It seems likely that raiding Arab tribes extinguished what remained of a weakened Nabataean culture. The_Treasury

Der Knigs Weg, 9000 Jahre Kunst und Kultur in Jordanien

|Other| |Books|, |Der| |Knigs| |Weg,| |9000| |Jahre| |Kunst| |und| |Kultur| |in| |Jordanien|
The king's way 9000 years of art and culture in Jordan.
BK22490. Der Knigs Weg, 9000 Jahre Kunst und Kultur in Jordanien by Philipp von Zabern, 1987, in German, 372 pages, illustrated, used, very good condition, international shipping at actual cost of shipping; $10.00 SALE PRICE $9.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |19|
Aretas IV Philopatris was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. During his reign, large religious centers - also serving as banks and trade clearinghouses - were established on the Hauran, in Petra, and at Avdat. Aretas was married to Huldu when he became king. Her profile was featured on coins until 16 A.D. After a short gap, the face of his second wife, Shuqailat, appeared on the coins. Aretas's daughter married Herod Antipas, tetrarch of the Galilee. When Antipas took another wife, Herodias, Aretas's daughter returned to her father, who went to war against Antipas and defeated him. The episode led to the beheading of John the Baptist. Antipas appealed to Tiberius, who dispatched the governor of Syria to attack Aretas. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus when he had to to be lowered from the wall in a basket to escape. Al-Khazneh, the treasury, one of the most elaborate buildings in Petra, is believed to have been Aretas' mausoleum.
GB111368. Bronze AE 19, cf. Barkay CN 186; Al-Qatanani 169; Meshorer Nabataean 114; BMC Arabia p. 8, 14; Huth 86; SNG ANS 6 1438, F, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, obv. off center, weight 4.058 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 16 - 40 A.D.; obverse jugate laureate and draped busts of Aretas IV and Shuqailat right; reverse two cornucopias crossed and filleted, Nabataean inscription in three lines: TTRH / SQY/TL (Aretas Shuqailat, read right to left, two lines above between the horns, the last line below); $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Rabbel II and Gamilat, 70 - 106 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Rabbel| |II| |and| |Gamilat,| |70| |-| |106| |A.D.||drachm|
Rabbel II was the last Nabataean king. A child when he became king, his mother, Shuqailat, ruled in the early years. He was given the title, "He who gives life and salvation to his people," perhaps for subjugating Arab tribes. Upon his death, Trajan annexed the kingdom. On 22 March 106, Nabataea was incorporated into the new province of Arabia Petraea, with Bosra as its capital. The date on this coin is off flan, but it appears to be a die match to a year 22 coin.
GS110741. Billon drachm, Barkay CN 234 (same obv. die); Al-Qatanani 241, Meshorer Nabataean 154; cf. BMC Arabia p. 12, 1 & pl. II, 18 (date off flan); SNG ANS 1445 (same), VF, toned, tight flan cutting off most of legends, weight 3.240 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 91 - 92 A.D.; obverse Nabataean legend: "Rabbel the king, king of the Nabataeans, year 22" (date off flan), laureate and draped bust of Aretas IV with long hair right; reverse Nabataean legend: "Gamilat, his sister, queen of the Nabataeans", veiled bust of Gamilat right; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Rabbel II, 70 - 106 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Rabbel| |II,| |70| |-| |106| |A.D.||drachm|
Rabbel II was the last Nabataean king. A child when he became king, his mother, Shuqailat, ruled in the early years. He was given the title, "He who gives life and salvation to his people," perhaps for subjugating Arab tribes. Upon his death, Trajan annexed the kingdom. On 22 March 106, Nabataea was incorporated into the new province of Arabia Petraea, with Bosra as its capital. The date on this coin is off flan, but the style matches coins struck from 88 - 92 A.D.
GS110752. Billon drachm, cf. Al-Qatanani 238 - 240 (yrs. 20 - 21); Meshorer Nabataean 153 (yr. 21); Barkay CN 231 - 233 (yrs. 19 - 21); BMC Arabia p. 12, 1 (date off flan), VF, toned, tight flan cutting off much of legends, weight 3.584 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 88 - 91 A.D.; obverse Nabataean legend, "Rabbel the king, of the Nabataeans, year [19 - 21?]" (date off flan), laureate and draped bust of Aretas IV with long hair right; reverse Nabataean legend, "Gamilath, his sister, queen of the Nabataeans", veiled bust of Gamilath right; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV and Phasael, 5 - 4 B.C.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV| |and| |Phasael,| |5| |-| |4| |B.C.||AE| |14|
Possibly struck in the year of Christ's birth! Jesus was born sometime between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C. Matthew describes King Herod as the ruler during the time of the Nativity, and Herod died in 4 B.C. Later, in order to kill Jesus and eliminate him as a rival king, Herod ordered the "Massacre of the Innocents" - the killing of all male children in Bethlehem aged two years and under. This means that Jesus may have been up to two years old already by that time, and this also sets the Nativity between 6 and 4 B.C. The normal issue of this type has the monograms of Aretas (heth) and his son, Phasael, (peh sade).
GB110807. Bronze AE 14, Meshorer Nabataean 63A var. (monograms); Barkay CN 117 var. (same); Al-Qatanani 185t9 var. (same); Schmitte-Korte 1990 49 var. (same, VF, attractive dark green patina with reddish earthen highlighting, light scratches, weight 1.898 g, maximum diameter 14.3 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 5 - 4 B.C.; obverse laureate head right; reverse two parallel cornucopias, tops left, tided with ribbon, palm frond on right; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Rabbel II, 70 - 106 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Rabbel| |II,| |70| |-| |106| |A.D.||drachm|
Rabbel II was the last Nabataean king. A child when he became king, his mother, Shuqailat, ruled in the early years. He was given the title, "He who gives life and salvation to his people," perhaps for subjugating Arab tribes. Upon his death, Trajan annexed the kingdom. On 22 March 106, Nabataea was incorporated into the new province of Arabia Petraea, with Bosra as its capital. The date on this coin is off flan, but the style matches coins struck from 88 - 92 A.D.
GS110743. Billon drachm, cf. Al-Qatanani 238 - 240 (yrs. 20 - 21); Meshorer Nabataean 153 (yr. 21); Barkay CN 231 - 233 (yrs. 19 - 21); BMC Arabia p. 12, 1 (date off flan), VF, toned, tight flan cutting off most of legends, weight 3.316 g, maximum diameter 14.3 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 88 - 91 A.D.; obverse Nabataean legend, "Rabbel the king, of the Nabataeans, year [19 - 21?]" (date off flan), laureate and draped bust of Aretas IV with long hair right; reverse Nabataean legend, "Gamilath, his sister, queen of the Nabataeans", veiled bust of Gamilath right; $190.00 SALE PRICE $171.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Petra, the capital of the ancient Nabatean Kingdom, is a famous archaeological site in Jordan's southwestern desert. Accessed via a narrow canyon called Al Siq, it contains tombs and temples carved into pink sandstone cliffs, earning its nickname, the "Rose City." Perhaps its most famous structure is 45m-high Al Khazneh, a temple with an ornate, Greek-style facade, and known as The Treasury. The structure is believed to have been the mausoleum of the Nabatean King Aretas IV in the 1st century A.D. The sculptures are thought to be those of various mythological figures associated with the afterlife. On top are figures of four eagles that would carry away the souls. The figures on the upper level are dancing Amazons with double-axes. The entrance is flanked by statues of the twins Castor and Pollux who lived partly on Olympus and partly in the underworld. Tomb_of_Aretas
GB110799. Bronze AE 14, cf. Meshorer Nabataean 68, Al-Qatanani 141, Barkay CN 150b, Huth 77, SNG ANS 6 1432, gF, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 1.655 g, maximum diameter 13.6 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 4 - 3 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right; reverse two crossed cornucopias, Nabataean heth (Aretas) between the horns; $32.00 SALE PRICE $28.80


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |15|
Aretas IV was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. He took the name Philopatris, lover of his people. Aretas married Shuqailat, his second wife, in 16 A.D. Aretas' daughter Phasaelis was married to, and divorced from, Herod Antipas. Herod then married his stepbrother's wife, Herodias. It was opposition to this marriage that led to the beheading of John the Baptist. After he received news of the divorce, Aretas invaded the territory of Herod Antipas and defeated his army. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus, when he had to sneak out of the city in a basket lowered from a window in the wall to escape (2 Corinthians 11:32). Al-Khazneh, one of the most elaborate buildings in Petra, is believed to have been his mausoleum.
GB110802. Bronze AE 15, Al-Qatanani 156, Barkay CN 187d, Huth 80, Meshorer Nabataean 97, SNG ANS 6 1435, gVF, dark green patina, highlighting buff earthen highlighting, flan adjustment marks, casting sprue remnant, weight 2.182 g, maximum diameter 14.9 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 18 - 19 A.D.; obverse Aretas standing facing, looking left, laureate, wearing military dress, scarf and high boots, spear in right hand, left on pommel of sword in scabbard, palm frond left, Aramaic monogram (H) upper right; reverse Shuqailat standing left, veiled, wearing long chiton, right hand raised, wreath left, Aramaic legend "Shuqa/ila/t" in three lines on right; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Rabbel II and Gamilat, 70 - 106 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Rabbel| |II| |and| |Gamilat,| |70| |-| |106| |A.D.||AE| |17|
Rabbel II was the last Nabataean king. Gamilath was Rabbel's sister and wife; however, "Sister" may have been an honorary title. He was given the title, "He who gives life and salvation to his people," perhaps for subjugating Arab tribes. Upon his death, Trajan annexed the kingdom. On 22 March 106, Nabataea was incorporated into the new province of Arabia Petraea, with Bosra as its capital.
GB110804. Bronze AE 17, Barkay CN 235; Al-Qatanani 245; Meshorer Nabataean 163; Huth 99; SNG ANS 6 1446; Schmitt-Korte II 86; BMC Arabia p. 13, 3, VF, green patina, highlighting earthen desert patina, tight squared flan, weight 3.576 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 76 - 102 A.D.; obverse jugate laureate busts of Rabbel II and Gamilat, Rabbel II has long hair and a V shaped ornament over his forehead at the center of his laurel wreath; reverse two crossed cornucopias, Nabataean legend "Rabbel / Gamilath" in two lines between the horns; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Anonymous Issue, c. 272 - 72 B.C.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Anonymous| |Issue,| |c.| |272| |-| |72| |B.C.||AE| |18|
There has been much debate over the dating of this bronze type, imitative of the gold staters of Alexander. Great variation in style suggests a long period of striking and they are often overstruck on coins of Ptolemy I - III. They were most likely struck at the desert citadel of Petra before Aretas III lost Damascus to Tigranes II in 72 B.C., and then transferred his royal mint to Petra.
GB110809. Bronze AE 18, Barkay CN 1, Meshorer Nabataea 1; Huth 44; HGC 10, 671, gF, green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, obv. edge beveled, central dimples, weight 3.911 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 90o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 272 - 72 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse Nike advancing left, wreath in extended right hand, Λ in left field; scarce; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00




  






REFERENCES

Al-Qatanani, Y. Nabataean Coins. (Jordan, 2020).
Barkay, R. "New Nabataean Coins" in INJ 16 (2007-8), pp. 92 - 99.
Barkay, R. "Seven new silver coins of Malichus I and Obodas III" in NC 166 (2006), pp. 99 - 103.
Barkay, R. "The Coinage of the Last Nabataean King, Rabbel II (AD 70/1-105/6)" in NC 174 (2014), pp. 29 - 44, pl. 6 - 7.
Barkay, R. The Coinage of the Nabataeans. Qedem 58. (Jerusalem, 2019).
Barkay, R. "The Coinage of the Nabataean Usurper Syllaeus (c. 96 BC)" in NC 177 (2017), pp. 67 - 81, pl. 13 - 14.
Barkay, R. "The Earliest Nabataean Coinage" in NC 171 (2011), pp. 67 - 73, pl. 4 - 5.
Bowersock, G. Roman Arabia. (Cambridge, 1983).
Bowsher, J. "Early Nabataean Coinage" in ARAM 2:1-2 (1990), pp. 221 - 228.
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Dussaud, R. "Numismatique de Rois de Nabatne" in Journal asiatique 3 (1904), pp. 189 - 238, & pl. 1.
Hill, G. A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum - Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. (London, 1922).
Hoover, O. "A Reassessment of Nabataean Lead Coinage in Light of New Discoveries" in NC 166 (2006), pp. 105 - 119, pl. 27 - 30.
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of the Southern Levant: Phoenicia, Southern Koile Syria (Including Judaea), and Arabia, Fifth to First Centuries BC. HGC 10. (Lancaster, PA, 2010).
Hoover, O. "More New Nabatean Lead Issues of Aretas IV" in INR 7 (2012), pp. 107 - 113, pl. 13.
Hoover, O. & R. Barkay. "Important Additions to the Corpus of Nabataean Coins since 1990" in Huth CCK. (New York, 2010), pp. 197 - 212, pl. 17 - 18.
Huth, M. Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms, Ancient Arabian Coins from the Collection of Martin Huth. ACNAC 10. (New York, 2010).
Huth, M. & P. van Alfen. Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms. Studies in the Monetization of Ancient Arabia. ANSNS 25. (New York, 2010).
Meshorer, Y. Nabatean Coins. Qedem 3. (Jerusalem, 1975).
Meshorer, Y., et al. Coins of the Holy Land: The Abraham and Marian Sofaer Collection at the American Numismatic Society and The Israel Museum. ACNAC 8. (New York, 2013).
Milik, J. & H. Seyrig. "Trsor montaire de Murabba'at" in Revue Numismatique 1 (1958), pp. 11 - 22.
Plant, R. "The Coinage of the Nabataeans" in Seaby Coin and Medal Bulletin, March 1979, pp. 81-84.
Robinson, E. "Coins from Petra etc." in NC 1936, pp. 288 - 291, pl. XVII.
Schmitt-Korte, K. & M. Cowell. "Nabatean Coinage - Part I. The Silver Content Measured by X-ray Fluorescence Analysis" in NC 1989, pp. 33 - 58, pl. 11 - 17.
Schmitt-Korte, K. "Nabatean Coinage - Part II. New Coin Types and Variants" in NC 1990, pp. 105 - 133, pl. 10 - 15.
Schmitt-Korte, K. & M. Price. "Nabatean Coinage - Part III. The Nabatean Monetary System" in NC 1994, pp. 67 - 131, pl. 10 - 12.
Spikerman. A. The coins of the Decapolis and Provincial Arabia. (Jerusalem, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 6: Palestine - South Arabia. (New York, 1981).
Tal, O. "Coin denominations and weight standards in fourth-century BCE Palestine" in INR 2, pp. 24 - 28.

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