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Nabataean Kingdom

The early Nabataeans forsook all building and agriculture because those who possess these things, in order to retain them, are easily compelled by the powerful to do their bidding. Rather than fight invaders, they would go into the desert, where only they could survive, and wait for the invaders to leave. Aretas II was a contemporary of Alexander Jannaeus. Aretas III was the first to issue coins, which he began after he defeated the Seleucid army in 84 B.C. and the council of Damascus asked him to govern their city. A Roman army under Marcus Aemilius Scaurus defeated Aretas III and besieged Petra, but paying a tribute, Aretas received formal recognition by the Roman Republic. The kingdom was slowly surrounded by the expanding Roman Empire, who conquered Egypt and annexed Judea, but wealthy from incense trade, Nabataea paid tribute and retained independence. The Nabataeans fought against Herod and also provided forces to the Romans during the Second Jewish Revolt. After the last Nabataean king, Rabbel II, died in 106 A.D., Trajan incorporated Nabataea into the Roman province Arabia Petraea. One of the latest known Nabataean language inscriptions, from 191 A.D., records "...This in the year 85 of the Eparchy [Roman Rule], in which Arabs destroyed the land." It seems likely that raiding Arab tribes extinguished what remained of a weakened Nabataean culture. In 747 A.D. what was left of the Nabataean cities was destroyed in a major earthquake.The_Treasury

Der Knigs Weg, 9000 Jahre Kunst und Kultur in Jordanien

|Other| |Books|, |Der| |Knigs| |Weg,| |9000| |Jahre| |Kunst| |und| |Kultur| |in| |Jordanien|
The king's way 9000 years of art and culture in Jordan.
BK22490. Der Knigs Weg, 9000 Jahre Kunst und Kultur in Jordanien by Philipp von Zabern, 1987, in German, 372 pages, illustrated, used, very good condition, international shipping at actual cost of shipping; $10.00 SALE PRICE $9.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Rabbel II, 70 - 106 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Rabbel| |II,| |70| |-| |106| |A.D.||AE| |16|
Rabbel II was the last Nabataean king, ruling 70/71 to 106 A.D. Rabbel II is not mentioned in historical sources; we know him only from inscriptions and his coins. An inscription identifies Rabbel as the son of Malichus, who was the son of Aretas; it also identifies Gamilat and Hagaru as daughters of Malichus, thus sisters of Rabbel. From coinage, we know that when he was crowned, Rabbel II was too young to rule and his mother, Shuqailat II, ruled as regent for six years. Rabbel's two sisters also appear on his coins confirming Rabbel married his own sisters and made them queens, a Nabataean tradition. After Rabbel II's death in 106, Trajan made the Nabataean Kingdom part of the Roman province Arabia Petraea.
GB94787. Bronze AE 16, Barkay CN 235; Al-Qatanani 245; Meshorer Nabataean 163; Huth 99; SNG ANS 6 1446; Schmitt-Korte II 86; BMC Arabia p. 13, 3, aVF, near black patina, highlighting earthen deposits, tight flan squared by sprue cuts, weight 3.138 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 88/89 - 105 A.D.; obverse jugate laureate busts of Rabbel II and Gamilat, Rabbel II has long hair and a V shaped ornament over his forehead at the center of his laurel wreath; reverse two crossed cornucopias, Nabataean legend "Rabbel / Gamilat" in two lines between the horns; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 SALE PRICE $45.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Rabbel II, 70 - 106 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Rabbel| |II,| |70| |-| |106| |A.D.||AE| |16|
Rabbel II was the last Nabataean king, ruling 70/71 to 106 A.D. An inscription identifies Rabbel as the son of Malichus, who was the son of Aretas; it also identifies Gamilat and Hagaru as daughters of Malichus, thus sisters of Rabbel. Rabbel's two sisters also appear on his coins confirming Rabbel married his own sisters, a Nabataean royal tradition. Gamilat was his first wife. Rabbel may have married his sister Gamilat as early as 76 A.D. and she may have lived to 105 A.D. Gamilat appears on drachms dated from regnal year 11 to 22, c. 81 - 92 A.D. The bronze coinage is undated.
GB94789. Bronze AE 16, Barkay CN 235; Al-Qatanani 245; Meshorer Nabataean 163; Huth 99; SNG ANS 6 1446; Schmitt-Korte II 86; BMC Arabia p. 13, 3, VF, black patina with highlighting earthen deposits, flan squared by sprue cuts, porosity, weight 3.366 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 88/89 - 105 A.D.; obverse jugate laureate busts of Rabbel II and Gamilat, Rabbel II has long hair and a V shaped ornament over his forehead at the center of his laurel wreath; reverse two crossed cornucopias, Nabataean legend "Rabbel / Gamilat" in two lines between the horns; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||quarter| |unit|
Aretas IV Philopatris was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. During his reign, large religious centers - also serving as banks and trade clearinghouses - were established on the Hauran, in Petra, and at Avdat. Aretas was married to Huldu when he became king. Her profile was featured on coins until 16 A.D. After a short gap, the face of his second wife, Shuqailat, appeared on the coins. Aretas's daughter married Herod Antipas, tetrarch of the Galilee. When Antipas took another wife, Herodias, Aretas's daughter returned to her father, who went to war against Antipas and defeated him. The episode led to the beheading of John the Baptist. Antipas appealed to Tiberius, who dispatched the governor of Syria to attack Aretas. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus when he had to to be lowered from the wall in a basket to escape. Al-Khazneh, the treasury, one of the most elaborate buildings in Petra, is believed to have been Aretas' mausoleum.
GB94746. Bronze quarter unit, Meshorer Nabataean 81, Al-Qatanani 159t1, Barkay CN 134, Huth -, BMC Arabia -, SNG ANS 6 -, F, dark green patina, deposits, weight 2.094 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, year 10, spring 1 - spring 2 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right; reverse Nabataean inscription (quarter) within wreath; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Malichus II, 40 - 70 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Malichus| |II,| |40| |-| |70| |A.D.||AE| |17|
In Malichus' time, Nabataean trade dwindled as the Romans diverted the perfume and spice cargos to Egypt. In 67 A.D. Malichus II sent an army of 5,000 horsemen and 1,000 soldiers to help Titus quash the Jewish revolt.
GB94786. Bronze AE 17, Al-Qatanani 217; Barkay CN 212; Meshorer Nabataean 140A; Huth 92; SNG ANS 6 1444; BMC Arabia p. 11, 4, gVF, black patina, highlighting earthen deposits, flan squared by sprue cuts, flan adjustment marks, weight 3.252 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 40 - 70 A.D.; obverse jugate laureate and draped bust of Malichus II and Shuqailat II right; reverse two cornucopias, crossed and filleted, Nabataean legend, "Malichus / Shuqailat" in two lines above and one below the cornucopias; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Syllaeus and Aretas IV, 9 B.C.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Syllaeus| |and| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.||AE| |14|
Syllaeus was chief minister for Obodas III and he briefly shared rule of Nabataea with Aretas IV after Obodas death. But Syllaeus had a powerful enemy. In 24 B.C. Syllaeus had betrayed Rome causing almost the complete destruction of an army sent into Arabia Felix. Syllaeus was twice called to the court at Rome, where in 6 B.C. he was convicted of treason and Obodas' murder. He was beheaded and his body was pitched from the Tarpeian Rock.
GB94797. Bronze AE 14, Al-Qatanani 69t2, Meshorer Nabataean 44, Barkay CN 82c, Huth -, SNG ANS 6 -, BMC Arabia -, F, dark green patina, light earthen deposits, scratches, off center, weight 1.433 g, maximum diameter 14.2 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 9 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Obodas II, Nabataean shin (Syllaeus) left; reverse crossed cornucopias, Nabataean shin (Syllaeus) lower left, Nabataean het (Aretas) lower right; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $40.00 SALE PRICE $36.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
The Nabataean letters on the reverse are read from right to left, het ros, naming Aretas. On much of Aretas' coinage he uses only het (similar to a Latin H) or a ligate het-ros monogram. On this variant the two letters are separate and clear.
GB94964. Bronze AE 14, Barkay CN 150e; Al-Qatanani 154t6; Meshorer Nabataean 67; BMC Arabia p. 9, 27; Huth -; SNG ANS 6 -, F, dark green patina, earthen deposits, flat sprue cut edge area, weight 2.135 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 4 - 3 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, het (Aretas) lower left; reverse two crossed and filleted cornucopias, two pomegranates dangling from tops above center, Nabataean het ros (Aretas) between the horns; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $45.00 SALE PRICE $40.50


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Barbaric Imitative

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.,| |Barbaric| |Imitative||AE| |14|
Aretas IV was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. Al-Khazneh,one of the most elaborate temples in Petra, is believed to have been the mausoleum of Aretas IV. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32). Al-Khazneh, one of the most elaborate temples in Petra, is believed to have been the mausoleum of Aretas IV.
GB94966. Bronze AE 14, Al-Qatanani 141t6 (die match, barbaric style), Meshorer Nabataean 68A; cf. Huth 77 (official style), Barkay CN 150c (same), Schmitt-Korte 38 (same), VF, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, obv. off center, reverse edge beveled, small edge split, weight 1.482 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 0o, unofficial mint, c. 2 - 24; obverse laureate head of Aretas right; reverse two crossed and filleted cornucopias, Nabataean het ros monogram (Aretas) between the horns; from the Ray Nouri Collection; extremely rare; $225.00 SALE PRICE $203.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Petra, the capital of the ancient Nabatean Kingdom, is a famous archaeological site in Jordan's southwestern desert. Accessed via a narrow canyon called Al Siq, it contains tombs and temples carved into pink sandstone cliffs, earning its nickname, the "Rose City." Perhaps its most famous structure is 45m-high Al Khazneh, a temple with an ornate, Greek-style facade, and known as The Treasury. The structure is believed to have been the mausoleum of the Nabatean King Aretas IV in the 1st century A.D. The sculptures are thought to be those of various mythological figures associated with the afterlife. On top are figures of four eagles that would carry away the souls. The figures on the upper level are dancing Amazons with double-axes. The entrance is flanked by statues of the twins Castor and Pollux who lived partly on Olympus and partly in the underworld. Tomb_of_Aretas
GB94967. Bronze AE 14, cf. Meshorer Nabataean 68, Al-Qatanani 141, Barkay CN 150b, Huth 77, SNG ANS 6 1432, aF, dark patina with highlighting earthen deposits, struck with a damaged obverse die, tight flan, weight 2.872 g, maximum diameter 14.4 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 4 - 3 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right; reverse two crossed cornucopias, Nabataean heth (Aretas) between the horns; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $36.00 SALE PRICE $32.40


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Aretas IV was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. Al-Khazneh,one of the most elaborate temples in Petra, is believed to have been the mausoleum of Aretas IV. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32). Al-Khazneh, one of the most elaborate temples in Petra, is believed to have been the mausoleum of Aretas IV.
GB94970. Bronze AE 14, Barkay CN 150g, Al-Qatanani 146, Schmitt-Korte II 40, Meshorer Nabataean 69, Huth -, SNG ANS 6 - , aF, green patina with highlighting earthen deposits, weight 1.912 g, maximum diameter 14.3 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, c. 2 - 24; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, Nabataean heth (Aretas) left and lower right; reverse two crossed and filleted cornucopias, Nabataean heth (Aretas) between the horns, lower left and lower right; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $32.00 SALE PRICE $28.80




  






REFERENCES

Al-Qatanani, Y. Nabataean Coins. (Jordan, 2020).
Barkay, R. "New Nabataean Coins" in INJ 16 (2007-8), pp. 92 - 99.
Barkay, R. "Seven new silver coins of Malichus I and Obodas III" in NC 166 (2006), pp. 99 - 103.
Barkay, R. "The Coinage of the Last Nabataean King, Rabbel II (AD 70/1-105/6)" in NC 174 (2014), pp. 29 - 44, pl. 6 - 7.
Barkay, R. The Coinage of the Nabataeans. Qedem 58. (Jerusalem, 2019).
Barkay, R. "The Coinage of the Nabataean Usurper Syllaeus (c. 96 BC)" in NC 177 (2017), pp. 67 - 81, pl. 13 - 14.
Barkay, R. "The Earliest Nabataean Coinage" in NC 171 (2011), pp. 67 - 73, pl. 4 - 5.
Bowersock, G. Roman Arabia. (Cambridge, 1983).
Bowsher, J. "Early Nabataean Coinage" in ARAM 2:1-2 (1990), pp. 221 - 228.
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Dussad, R. "Numismatique des rois de Nabatene" in Journal Asiatique 12 (March - April 1904), pp. 189 - 238, pls. I - IV.
Hill, G. A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum - Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. (London, 1922).
Hoover, O. "A Reassessment of Nabataean Lead Coinage in Light of New Discoveries" in NC 166 (2006), pp. 105 - 119, pl. 27 - 30.
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of the Southern Levant: Phoenicia, Southern Koile Syria (Including Judaea), and Arabia, Fifth to First Centuries BC. HGC 10. (Lancaster, PA, 2010).
Hoover, O. "More New Nabatean Lead Issues of Aretas IV" in INR 7 (2012), pp. 107 - 113, pl. 13.
Hoover, O. & R. Barkay. "Important Additions to the Corpus of Nabataean Coins since 1990" in Huth CCK. (New York, 2010), pp. 197 - 212, pl. 17 - 18.
Huth, M. Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms, Ancient Arabian Coins from the Collection of Martin Huth. ACNAC 10. (New York, 2010).
Huth, M. & P. van Alfen. Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms. Studies in the Monetization of Ancient Arabia. ANSNS 25. (New York, 2010).
Meshorer, Y. Nabatean Coins, Qedem 3. (Jerusalem, 1975).
Plant, R. "The Coinage of the Nabataeans" in Seaby Coin and Medal Bulletin, March 1979, pp. 81-84.
Robinson, E. "Coins from Petra etc." in NC 1936, pp. 288 - 291, pl. XVII.
Schmitt-Korte, K. & M. Cowell. "Nabatean Coinage - Part I. The Silver Content Measured by X-ray Fluorescence Analysis" in NC 1989, pp. 33 - 58, pl. 11 - 17.
Schmitt-Korte, K. "Nabatean Coinage - Part II. New Coin Types and Variants" in NC 1990, pp. 105 - 133, pl. 10 - 15.
Schmitt-Korte, K. & M. Price. "Nabatean Coinage - Part III. The Nabatean Monetary System" in NC 1994, pp. 67 - 131, pl. 10 - 12.
Spikerman. A. The coins of the Decapolis and Provincial Arabia. (Jerusalem, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 6: Palestine - South Arabia. (New York, 1981).
Tal, O. "Coin denominations and weight standards in fourth-century BCE Palestine" in INR 2, pp. 24 - 28.

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