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The Maccabees were Jewish rebel warriors that took control of Judea, which at the time had been a part of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled Judea from 167 BCE to 37 BCE, as a fully independent kingdom from about 140 to 63 BCE. They reasserted the Jewish religion, partly by forced conversion, expanded the boundaries of Judea by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism. Independent Hasmonean rule lasted until 63 BCE, when the Roman general Pompeus intervened in Hasmonean civil war, making it a client kingdom of Rome. The Hasmonean dynasty ended in 37 BCE when the Idumean Herod the Great became king of Israel, designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate, effectively transforming the Hasmonean Kingdom into the Herodian Kingdom - a client kingdom of Rome.
|Reading Judean Coins in .wrote of the inscriptions on this , "The letters are clear, large and straight, with few variants. On many coins the , especially the final word, is incomplete. Even the specimens that depict incomplete inscriptions and errors reveal a and contain well-defined letters." The on this coin reads, from right to left, as follows: [YH]/WNTN (Yehonatan, the first two letters off the ) / KHN (Priest) H (high) L/DG (high) W (and) (HH) (council) [of the Jews is omitted]. See|