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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Secessionist Empires| ▸ |Carausius||View Options:  |  |  |   

Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius was originally a fleet commander sent by the first Tetrarchs to rid the Northern seas of Saxon and Frankish pirates. He soon turned to piracy himself, before fleeing to Britain and declaring himself emperor. His natural cunning enabled him to resist all attempts to dislodge him. In 293 Constantius I captured his continental stronghold of Boulogne. Soon after Carausius was murdered by his chief minister Allectus.

|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The quantity of PAX coinage issued by Carausius probably exceeded the entire output of all his other types combined. The type was an appeal by the usurper Carausius for peace with the "official" emperors. Diocletian and Maximian did not recognize Carausius as emperor, nor did they reciprocate his desire for peace.
RA93350. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 171; RIC V-2 143 (R); Cohen VII 239; SRCV IV 13665; Hunter IV 50, aVF/F, well centered, minor porosity, weight 4.138 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. 292 - early 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing half left, head left, olive branch in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, S - P flanking across field, MLXXI in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $220.00 (€180.40)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Felicitas was the goddess or personification of happiness, good fortune, and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RA73473. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 1014 (S), Linchmere 1136 var. (P F AVG), Hunter IV 79 var. (P F AVG, TEMPO), Webb Carausius 1136 var. (same), King Unmarked -, Bicester -, F, green patina, broad flan, weight 4.016 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 270o, unmarked mint mint, c. mid 286 - 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate and draped bust right, early reign 'moustache' portrait; reverse TEMP FELIC (happy time), Felicitas standing slightly left, head left, grounded long caduceus vertical in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, fields blank; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $120.00 (€98.40)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Although Ares was viewed by the Greeks primarily as destructive and destabilizing, worthy of contempt and revulsion, for the Romans, Mars was a father (pater) of the Roman people. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.
RA73268. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 844 (S), Webb 940, Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, aF, well centered, nice green patina, weight 3.971 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain British mint, c. mid 286 - 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate and draped bust right, early reign "moustache" portrait; reverse MARS VICTOR (Mars the Victor), Mars walking right, transverse spear in right hand, trophy over shoulder in left, no field marks, nothing in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $50.00 (€41.00)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.
RA73475. Billon antoninianus, Beaujard and Huvelin 36, Webb Carausius 739, RIC V-2 666 (R), Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, F, well centered on a tight flan, over-cleaned, porous, ragged edge, closed flan crack, weight 2.673 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 225o, Rotomagus (Rouen, France) mint, 2nd emission, c. 1st half 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front, continental portrait type; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing slightly left, head left, from patera in right hand feeding snake rising from altar, cornucopia in left hand, no mintmarks; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very rare; $90.00 (€73.80)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Although the exergue is off flan, based on the portrait style, it is likely this is an early issue without a mintmark (unmarked). It may have been struck at a mint traveling with Carausius or perhaps at London.
RA73490. Billon antoninianus, cf. RIC V-2 983, Webb Carausius 1102, Hunter IV 75, Cohen VII 310, Linchmere Hoard 1102 (1 spec.), King Unmarked 13, SRCV IV -, Bicester -, F, nice green patina, centered on a crowded flan, minor edge chipping, weight 2.590 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 45o, London(?) mint, c. mid 286 - 287 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right, early reign 'moustache' portrait; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing slightly left, head left, from patera in right hand feeding snake rising from altar, long scepter vertical in left hand; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; $75.00 (€61.50)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Rouen (Latin: Rotomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries.
RA73288. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 736, RIC V-2 662 (R), Carausian Hoard 72, SRCV IV 13715 var. (legends), Hunter IV -, King Unmarked -, Bicester -, gF, green patina, earthen encrustations, some corrosion, weight 5.197 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 225o, Rotomagus (Rouen, France) mint, mid 286 - early summer 293 A.D.; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing half left, from patera in her right hand, feeding snake rising from the left side of a column altar at her feet, cornucopia in left hand, nothing in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $90.00 (€73.80)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Hilaritas, the personification of rejoicing, is usually depicted as a matron, standing with a cornucopia in her left hand and a long palm frond on the ground in her right. Green branches were a sign of gladness and for special occasions, both public and private, it was the custom in ancient times to ornament streets, temples, gates, houses, and even entire cities, with branches and leaves of trees. This tradition carries on today in the form of wreaths and Christmas trees.
RA73255. Billon antoninianus, apparently unpublished, cf. RIC V-2 243 (R) (IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG), Webb Carausius 295 (same), SRCV IV -, Hunter IV -, Linchmere -, et al. -, aVF, broad flan, green patina, some legend weak, reverse off center and double struck, weight 4.098 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. 288 - 291; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, middle reign portrait type; reverse HILARITAS AVG, Hilaritas standing left, long palm frond in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very rare; $80.00 (€65.60)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.
RA73284. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 994 (S), Webb Carausius 1117, Linchmere 812A, King Carausius -, Burton Latimer -, Carausian Hoard -, Bicester -, aVF, tight slightly ragged flan, corrosion, weight 2.798 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 225o, unmarked mint, c. 288 - 291; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, middle reign portrait type; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus seated left feeding serpent and holding long staff, no field marks or mintmarks; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $50.00 (€41.00)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.
RA73489. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 165 (S), Webb Carausius 195, Bourne Carausius -, Linchmere -, Burton Latimer -, Bicester -, Carausian Hoard -, F, green patina, flan cracks, ragged flan, corrosion, encrustations, weight 3.219 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 180o, Londinium (London, England) mint, c. late 289 - 291; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, middle reign portrait type; reverse SALVS PVBLICA (the health of the public), Salus standing right, feeding snake held in right hand, from patera held in left hand, B - E across fields, MLXXI in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $75.00 (€61.50)
 


|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RA73256. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 1172, RIC V-2 1040 (R), Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, Burton Latimer -, Bicester -, F, green patina, obverse slightly off center, earthen deposits, scratches, weight 2.586 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 225o, unmarked mint, c. mid 286 - 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (courage of the Emperor), Virtus (or Mars) standing right, helmeted and draped, spear vertical in left hand, right hand resting on large grounded shield, no mint marks; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $50.00 (€41.00)
 




  






OBVERSE| |LEGENDS

CARAVSIVSETFRATRESSVI
CARAVSIVSPFAVG
IMPAVRCARAVSIVSAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSFAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSIIG
IMPCCARAVSIVSINAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSIVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPAV
IMPCCARAVSIVSPAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPIVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPFAG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPFAV
IMPCCARAVSIVSPFAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPFAVVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPFIAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPFINAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPFINVAVG
IMPCCARAVSIVSPIVSFELAVG
IMPCMACARAVSIVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVMCARAVSIVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRMCARAVSIVSPAVG
IMPCMCARAVSIVSAVG
IMPCMCARAVSIVSPAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSA
IMPCARAVSIVSAV
IMPCARAVSIVSAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSII
IMPCARAVSIVSIIG
IMPCARAVSIVSINIC
IMPCARAVSIVSINIVI
IMPCARAVSIVSFAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSPAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSPIAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSPEAG
IMPCARAVSIVSPEAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSPEAVIG
IMPCARAVSIVSPF
IMPCARAVSIVSPFA
IMPCARAVSIVSPFAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSPFAVIG
IMPCARAVSIVSPFIAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSPFIIG
IMPCARAVSIVSPFINAVG
IMPCARAVSIVSPIVV
IMPMCARAVSIVSAVG
INVICTOETCARAVSIOAVG
VIRTCARAVSIAVG
VIRTVSCARAVSI
VIRTVSCARAVSIA
VIRTVSCARAVSIAVG
VIRTVSCARAVSII
VIRTVSCARAVSSI


REFERENCES|

Askew, G. The Coinage of Roman Britain. (London, 1980).
Beaujard, E.B. & H. Huvelin. "Le tresor de Rouen et l'occupation de la Gaule par Carausius" in Histoire et Numismatique en Haut-Normandie. (Caen, 1980).
Bland, R. "A Hoard of Carausius and Allectus from Burton Latimer" in BNJ 54 (1984), pp. 41 - 50.
Burnett, A. & J. Casey. A Carausian Hoard from Croydon, Surrey, and a Note on Carausius's Continental Possessions" in BNJ 54 (1984), pp. 10 - 20.
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. 2: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Carson, R.A.G. "The Sequence-marks on the Coinage of Carausius and Allectus" in Essays Baldwin (1971), pp. 57 - 65.
Casey, P.J. Carausius and Allectus: The British Usurpers. (New Haven, 1995).
Challis, C.E. & M.A.S. Blackburn. Studies in the Coinages of Carausius and Allectus. (London, 1985).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 7: Carausius to Constantine & sons. (Paris, 1888).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Dioclétien a Constantin I (284-337). (Wetteren, 1995).
Giard, J-B. "La monnaie de Carausius à Rouen: une remise en question" in RN 1995, Vol. 6, Issue 150, pp. 264 - 266.
King, C.E. "A Small Hoard of Carausius Found Near Bicester Oxfordshire" in BNJ 53, (1982), pp. 7 - 16.
King, C.E. "The Unmarked Coins of Carausius" in BNJ 54 (1984), pp. 1 - 9.
King, C.E. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Mattingly, H., E.A. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schaaff, U. Münzen der römischen Kaiserzeit mit Schiffsdarstellungen im Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum. (Munich, 2003).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume IV: The Tetrarchies and the Rise of the House of Constantine...Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284 - 337. (London, 2011).
Shiel, N. The Episode of Carausius and Allectus. BAR 40. (Oxford, 1977).
Southerland, C.H.V. "'Carausius II', 'Censeris', and the Barbarous Fel. Temp. Reparatio Overstrikes" in NC 1945.
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Webb, P.H. The reign and coinage of Carausius. (London, 1908).
Webb, P.H. "The Linchmere Hoard" in NC 1925, pp. 173 - 235.

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