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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Recovery of the Empire| ▸ |Claudius II||View Options:  |  |  |   

Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.

Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemanni tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years.


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In 270, the Empire suffered an economic crisis due to usurpations, partition of the empire, invasions, and sackings of the countryside and cities. Agricultural and industrial production were significantly decreased, and mines went unused. A monetary crisis ensued. Inflation was up to 1,000% in some areas of the empire.
RL88553. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T1284 (13 spec.), RIC V-1 261, Venèra 10901-10902, Normanby 67, Hunter IV 12, SRCV III 11463, aF, areas of corrosion, some legend weak, parts of edge ragged, weight 4.689 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issue 1, c. end 270 - early 271; obverse DIVO CLAVDIO, radiate head right; reverse CONSECRATIO, flaming altar with four panels, each containing pellet, Q in exergue; $9.00 (€7.92)
 


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Refers to Claudius' great victory over the Goths at Naissus in Northern Greece. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years.
RL88618. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T243, Venèra 7329-7395, Cunetio 1989, Çanakkale 1481-1509, Normanby 668, Colonne 319, Hunter IV 21, RIC V-1 66, SRCV III -, F, irregular flan, uneven strike with weak areas and parts of legends unstruck, weight 5.887 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1st issue, Sep 268 – end 269; obverse IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse MARS VLTOR (Mars the avenger), Mars walking right, transverse spear in right hand, trophy of captured arms over left shoulder in left hand; $9.00 (€7.92)
 


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In 270, the Empire suffered an economic crisis due to usurpations, partition of the empire, invasions, and sackings of the countryside and cities. Agricultural and industrial production were significantly decreased, and mines went unused. A monetary crisis ensued. Inflation was up to 1,000% in some areas of the empire.
RL88628. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T1293 (5 spec.), Venèra 10911-10912, RIC V-1 261, SRCV III 11463, Hunter IV 12 var. (4th officina), gF, dark patina, minor encrustations, some legend letters unstuck (filled dies?), weight 3.570 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issue 1, c. end 270 - early 271; obverse DIVO CLAVDIO, radiate head right; reverse CONSECRATIO, flaming altar with four panels, each containing pellet, S in exergue; scarce; $16.00 (€14.08)
 


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A. Markl, "Mints and Issues of Claudius Gothicus" in Num. Zeitschrift 16, 1884, notes (in German) that Antioch and Rome share the same officina marks and some of the same reverse types, but the coins are usually easily separated. Antioch always has obverse legend IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG and officina letter in the exergue, whereas Rome-mint coins with letters in exergue only began in issue 3 with shortened obverse legend IMP CLAVDIVS AVG. Rome, and only Rome, usually writes IIIIIP for IMP in obverse legend. IVI for the M is common for Antioch. Finally, Antioch coins are usually on nicely rounded flans and are struck in better billon than the antoniniani of other mints, and are also found more often with an intact silver coating.
RL89972. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T1027 (59 spec.), Huvelin 1990 11, Amasya 2348-2350, Komin 1281, RIC V-1 225, Cohen VI 316, SRCV III 11386, Hunter IV - (p. lxxxii), Choice VF, near full silvering, full borders centering, flow lines, light marks, weight 2.995 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 180o, 6th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, issue 1, c. end 268 - end 269; obverse IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Minerva standing half right, head right, draped, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, spear vertical with point up in right hand, resting left hand on grounded oval shield, S in exergue; $95.00 (€83.60)
 


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Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA91014. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T60, RIC V-1 157, Normanby 1031, Venèra 9303 - 9364, Cunetio 2263, Hunter IV 58, SRCV III 3215, Cohen VI 202, EF, dark brown patina, traces of silvering, well centered, parts of legends weak, edge splits/cracks, weight 3.128 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 2nd issue, mid 269 – spring 270; obverse IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse PAX AVG, Pax walking left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter transverse in right hand, T in exergue; ex Eric J. Engstrom Collection; $90.00 (€79.20)
 


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Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.
RA91616. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T252, Hunter IV 16, Normanby 676, Venèra 7435-7524, Çanakkale 1554-1588, Appleshaw 181, Chalgrove II 309, RIC V-1 54, aVF, brown tone, porous, tight flan, die break obverse left field, slightly ragged edge, weight 3.257 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, 9th officina, Rome mint, 1st issue, c. Sep 268 – end 269; obverse IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulders, thunderbolt in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $45.00 (€39.60)
 


Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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Anubis, represented as a jackal or as a man with the head of a jackal, was the Egyptian god of the dead. He presided over the embalming of the dead and conducted souls into the underworld. The Greeks and Romans often scorned Egypt's animal-headed gods as bizarre and primitive (they mockingly called Anubis the Barker) but they also identified Anubis with Hermes, morphing them into Hermanubis.
RX91484. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari 5392; Geissen 3038; BMC Alexandria p. 303, 2327; Milne 4240; Curtis 1701; SNG Cop 847; Kampmann-Ganschow 104.25; Emmett 3883, F, tight flan, a little rough, weight 8.700 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 269 - 28 Aug 270 A.D.; obverse AVT K KΛAV∆IOC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse bust of Hermanubis right, wearing modius with lotus-petal in front, himation over shoulder, date LB (year 2) in left field, winged caduceus over palm in right; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $60.00 (€52.80)
 


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Laetitia is the Roman goddess of gaiety and joy, her name deriving from the root word laeta, meaning happy. She is typically depicted on coinage with a wreath in her right hand, and a scepter, a rudder, or an anchor in her left hand.

Under Claudius II, the Rome and Siscia mints often struck the same types. One way to distinguish the issuing mint for a coin is the portrait style. Portraits of Claudius II from Siscia often have a downward pointing nose, such as on this coin.
RL88541. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T884 (24 spec.), RIC V-1 235, SRCV III 11347, Cohen Vi 142, Komin 1120, Çanakkale 2361, Hunter IV - (p. lxxxiii), F, well centered, porous, a little rough, light deposits, closed flan crack, weight 3.533 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, issue 2, c. mid 269; obverse IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse LAETITIA AVG N (the joy of our Emperor), Laetitia standing left, wreath in right hand, left hand resting on grounded anchor, M - C flanking high across field, exergue blank; $14.00 (€12.32)
 


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The Greeks and Romans did not view snakes as evil creatures but rather as symbols and tools for healing and fertility. Asclepius, the son of Apollo and Koronis, learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.
RL88715. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC 184, RIC V-1 98, Normanby 606, Venèra 6066, Cunetio 1935, Çanakkale 1000, Gloucester 22, Thibouville 947, Appleshaw 154, F, green patina, tight flan, weight 3.123 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. Sep 268 - end 269; obverse IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing left, from patera in right hand, feeding snake rising from altar, long scepter in right hand; $14.00 (€12.32)
 


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Victory or Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Victory or Nike is also one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek and Roman coins.
RL88737. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC T166, SRCV III 11378, Normanby 617, Venèra 6439 - 6442, Cunetio 1945, Colonne 296, Çanakkale 1059, Komin 375, RIC V-1 104 var. (bust), F, tight flan, a little rough, weight 3.410 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Rome mint, issue 1, c. Sep 268 - end 269; obverse IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse VICTORIA AVG (the victory of the Emperor), Victory standing slightly, head left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand; $14.00 (€12.32)
 




  






OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

DIVOCLAVDIO
DIVOCLAVDIOGOTHICO
DIVOCLAVDIOOPTIMOIMP
DIVOCLAVDIOOPTIMP
IMPCCLAVDIVSAVG
IMPCLAVDIVSAVG
IMPCLAVDIVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRCLAVDIVSAVG


REFERENCES|

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Catalog current as of Wednesday, October 16, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Claudius II