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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline| ▸ |Gallienus||View Options:  |  |  |   

Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists, and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||sestertius|
Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.
RB91611. Orichalcum sestertius, Göbl MIR 38cc, RIC V-1 J248, Cohen V 1295, Hunter IV J33, SRCV III 10495, F/aF, well centered, tight squared flan (typical for the period), scratches and scrapes, weight 19.394 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Virtus standing left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded shield, spear vertical behind in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA94196. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 603a, Cunetio 1193, RSC IV 727, RIC V-1 S256, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, gVF, much silvering, edge a bit ragged, weight 3.079 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 9th emission, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, ∆ left; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
The "zoo series" of coins calling on Diana to protect the Emperor was struck late in Gallienus' reign. His father, Valerian, had been particularly dedicated to the worship of Diana the Preserver and had dedicated a temple to her at Rome. Diana apparently did not favor Gallienus. Not long after this coin was struck, he was assassinated near Milan while attempting to deal with the usurper Aureolus.
RA94197. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 728a, RSC IV 153 var. (doe looking back left), RIC V-1 S176 var. (same), SRCV III 10199 var. (same), gVF, excellent portrait, tight flan, some legend weak, reverse off center with beginning of legend mostly off flan, weight 2.848 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Rome mint, 10th emission, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse DIANAE CONS AVG (to Diana protector of the Emperor), doe walking right with head right, E in exergue; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
The "zoo series" of coins calling on Diana to protect the Emperor was struck late in Gallienus' reign. His father, Valerian, had been particularly dedicated to the worship of Diana the Preserver and had dedicated a temple to her at Rome. Diana apparently did not favor Gallienus. Not long after this coin was struck, he was assassinated near Milan while attempting to deal with the usurper Aureolus.
RA94199. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 747b, RIC V-1 S181, RIC IV 162, SRCV III 10200, VF, nice portrait, tight flan cutting off part of legends, tiny edge splits, weight 2.964 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right; reverse DIANAE CONS AVG (to Diana protector of the Emperor), antelope standing right, XI in exergue; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
The "zoo series" of coins calling on Diana to protect the Emperor was struck late in Gallienus' reign. His father, Valerian, had been particularly dedicated to the worship of Diana the Preserver and had dedicated a temple to her at Rome. Diana apparently did not favor Gallienus. Not long after this coin was struck, he was assassinated near Milan while attempting to deal with the usurper Aureolus.
RA94200. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 728b, RIC V-1 S177, RSC IV 154, SRCV III 10199 var. (IMP GALLIENVS AVG), VF, tight flan cutting off part of obverse legend, areas of light corrosion, tiny edge crack, weight 2.166 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 210o, Rome mint, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse DIANAE CONS AVG (to Diana protector of the Emperor), doe walking right, head turned back left, E in exergue; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
The "zoo series" of coins calling on Diana to protect the Emperor was struck late in Gallienus' reign. His father, Valerian, had been particularly dedicated to the worship of Diana the Preserver and had dedicated a temple to her at Rome. Diana apparently did not favor Gallienus. Not long after this coin was struck, he was assassinated near Milan while attempting to deal with the usurper Aureolus.
RA94198. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 727b, RSC IV 156, Cunetio 1361, RIC V-1 S177, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, F, well centered on a tight flan, weak strike, porosity, weight 3.133 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Rome mint, 10 emission, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse DIANAE CONS AVG (to Diana protector of the Emperor), doe walking left with head turned back right, E in exergue; $36.00 SALE |PRICE| $32.40
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.
RA94191. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1399a, RIC V-1 580, RSC IV 872, SRCV III 10334, Hunter IV - (p. lxviii), gF, nice portrait for the grade, well centered, brown tone with some green deposits, edge cracks, weight 2.986 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, seen from behind right shoulder; reverse PROVIDEN AVG (the foresight of the Emperor), Providentia standing slightly left, head left, baton in right hand held over globe at feet on left, cornucopia in left had; $36.00 SALE |PRICE| $32.40
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in ancient Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. This coin is dedicated to Apollo the Protector.
RA94193. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1171m, RIC V-1 S468, RSC IV 89, Hunter IV 151, Cunetio 1507, SRCV III 10182, aVF, white metal, some light corrosion, weight 2.943 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 264 - 265 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse APOLLO CONSER, Apollo standing slightly left, head left, nude, laurel-branch downward at side in right hand, mantle wrapped around left forearm dangling below; ; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
When this coin was struck Rome was relatively peaceful, but the peace would soon be shattered. Between 267 and 269, Goths and other barbarians invaded in huge numbers. Sources are extremely confused on the dating of these invasions, the participants, and their targets. Modern historians are not even able to discern with certainty whether there were two or more of these invasions or a single prolonged one.
RA94195. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 352e, RIC V-1 S256, RSC IV 739, Hunter IV 20, SRCV III -, VF, well centered, tight flan cutting off tops of legends, edge a little ragged, closed flan cracks, weight 2.631 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, 264 - 265 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, raising olive branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand, T in left field; $45.00 SALE |PRICE| $40.50
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Irenopolis-Neronias, Cilicia

|Cilicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Irenopolis-Neronias,| |Cilicia||7| |assaria|NEW
Wandering the world in a panther-drawn chariot, Dionysos rode ahead of the maenads and satyrs, who sang loudly and danced, flushed with wine. They were profusely garlanded with ivy and held the thyrsus, a staff topped with a pine cone, a symbol of the immortality of his believers. Everywhere he went he taught men how to cultivate vines and the mysteries of his cult. Whoever stood in his way and refused to revere him was punished with madness.
RP96990. Bronze 7 assaria, Karbach Eirenopolis - (cf. 146-7 same obv. die, diff. rev. type); Leu web auction 12 (2020), 870 (same dies); SNG Levante -; SNG Paris -; SNG PFPS -, aVF/F, green patina with earthen deposits, weight 12.523 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 225o, Irenopolis (Düzici, Turkey) mint, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse ΠOY ΛIK Γ/θ>AΛIHNOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; uncertain round countermark; reverse IPHNOΠOΛE (or similar), Dionysos drinking with his entourage, standing facing, kantharos (wine cup) in his right hand, pedum (shepherd's crook) in his left hand, Pan on right supporting him, Satyr on left standing with outstretched right hand, panther seated left at feet on left, Z (mark of value) right; ex Leu Numismatik web auction 13 (15 Aug 2020), lot 921; the second known; $1000.00 SALE |PRICE| $900.00
 




  






|OBVERSE LEGENDS|

IMPCAESGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVGCOSV
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGER
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGERM
IMPBALLIENVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERS
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFEL
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG
IMPGALLIENVSVAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENAEAVGVSTAE
GALLIENVMAVGPR
GALLIENVMAVGSENATVS
GALLIENVMPRINC
GALLIENVMSENATVS
GALLIENVSAVG
GALLIENVSAVGGERM
GALLIENVSAVGGERMV
GALLIENVSPAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
GALLIENVSPIVSAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG


REFERENCES|

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Bland, R. & A. Burnett. "Appleshaw, Hampshire" in Normanby Hoard, CHRB VIII (1988), pp. 91-107.
Bourdel, B. Les Antoniniens emis sous le regne conjoint des empereurs Valerien et Gallien, Mariniane, Salonine, Valerien II, Salonin (253-260 Apr. J.-C.). (2017).
Burnett, A. & R. Bland, eds. Coin Hoards from Roman Britain: The Normanby Hoard and Other Roman Coin Hoards. (London, 1988).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham, and P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, |Part| I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) http://numismatics.org/ocre/
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trésor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992).
Seaby, H. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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