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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline| ▸ |Gallienus||View Options:  |  |  |   

Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists, and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.

Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Alexandreia Troas, Troas

|Troas|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Alexandreia| |Troas,| |Troas|, |AE| |19|
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul) was an ancient Greek city on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of Turkey's western coast, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). Among the few structure ruins remaining today are a bath, an odeon, a theater and gymnasium complex and a stadium. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.
MA95719. Bronze AE 19, Bellinger A451; SNG Cop 204, VF, tight flan cutting off parts of legends, porosity, weight 3.965 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP LICIN GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, from behind; reverse COL AVG, horse grazing right, TRO in exergue; $10.65 (9.80)


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
RIC lists this type as common, but Gbl lists only a single specimen, and Coin archives lists only one from the first officina and none from the second.
RA93318. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-1 S494, Cohen V 685, SRCV III 10295, Hunter IV 167 var. (1st officina), aVF, well centered, dark patina, weight 2.540 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, drapery on left shoulder; reverse ORIENS AVG (the rising sun of the Emperor), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
Upon his father's capture by Parthia, Gallienus assumed the throne and began numerous reforms and military campaigns against usurpers and barbarians. He presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists, and philosophers. He was assassinated while besieging Milan.
RA93319. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1566d (Antioch), SRCV III 10397 (Antioch), RIC V-1 300 (Viminacium), AHG 234, Cohen V 1196, Hunter IV -, VF, nice portrait, flow lines, tight flan cutting off parts of legends, minor encrustations, some die wear, weight 3.693 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 254 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGG (victories of the two emperors), soldier standing right, vertical spear in right hand, resting left on shield; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
The obverse legend translates Libero Patri Conservatori Augusti, which identifies Liber Pater, a panther sacred to Bacchus, as a protector of the emperor. Gallienus also identified Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, and others on coins as his protectors.
RA93320. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 713b, RIC V-1 S230, Hunter IV 116, Cohen V 586, SRCV III 10281, Normanby -, gVF, nice portrait, well centered, dark patina with copper high points, tight flan, ragged edge cracks/splits, weight 1.895 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 300o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left, B in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RS93316. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1684m (Samosata), RSC IV 792b (Antioch), Hunter IV J68, Cunetio 849 (31 spec.), RIC V-1 J447, SRCV III 10312, Choice aEF, sharp portrait, well centered, toned, reverse die wear, ragged edge, weight 3.412 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Syrian mint, 256 - 258 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronting each other, facing center, sacrificing at flaming altar in center, togate, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right hand on parazonium on left side; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
Laetitia is the Roman goddess of gaiety and joy, her name deriving from the root word laeta, meaning happy. She is typically depicted on coinage with a wreath in her right hand, and a scepter, a rudder, or an anchor in her left hand.
RA93317. Billon antoninianus, cf. SRCV III 10250, gVF, nice portrait, well centered on a tight flan, traces of silvering, weight 2.666 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse LAETITIA AVG (the joy of the Emperor), Laetitia standing left, wreath in right hand, rudder in left, mintmark in exergue (off flan); from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Ephesos, Ionia

|Ephesos|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Ephesos,| |Ionia|, |AE| |25|
When Artemis was a child, she found five gigantic hinds (female deer) grazing in Thessaly and captured four of them to draw her chariot. The fifth escaped across a river to Mt. Cerynaea, on the border of Achaea and Arcadia. The Ceryneian or Golden Hind was sacred to Artemis. Although female, it had golden antlers like a stag and hooves of bronze. It was said that it could outrun an arrow in flight. Artemis allowed Heracles to capture the hind, his third labor, after he promised to liberate the animal after completing his task.
RP95365. Bronze AE 25, Karwiese 1131(a1) (O13/R95); SNG Munchen 260; SNG Hunterian XII 1749; SNG Cop 519; SNGvA 7889; SNG Tub -; BMC Ionia -, gVF, well centered on a broad flan, obverse die wear and minor die breaks, weight 6.759 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos mint, obverse AYT K ΠO ΛIKI ΓAΛΛIHNOC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse EΦECIΩN A D NEΩKOPΩN, agonistic urn (prize crown) containing palm fronds, band across the crown is marked EΦECIAI; from the Errett Bishop Collection; very rare; $200.00 SALE |PRICE| $180.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Side, Pamphylia

|Side|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Side,| |Pamphylia|, |10| |assaria|
The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. There are colossal ruins of a theater complex, the largest in Pamphylia, built in the 2nd century A.D. Following Roman design it relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. The stage building was ornately adorned but the decorations and the theater are damaged, in part due to a strong earthquake. The theater was converted into an open-air sanctuary with two chapels during the 5th or 6th century (Byzantine times).Theater at Side
RP92550. Bronze 10 assaria, SNG BnF 891, Waddington 3484, BMC Lycia p. 160, 108, F, well centered, porous, areas of corrosion, weight 15.960 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 180o, Side (near Selimiye, Antalya Province, Turkey) mint, sole reign, 260 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ΠOY ΛI EΓNA ΓAΛΛIHNOC CEBA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, I (mark of value) to right; reverse CI∆HTΩN NEΩKOPΩN, Apollo standing facing, head left, wearing short chiton, chlamys and boots, patera in right hand, left hand rests on laurel tipped staff; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Synnada, Phrygia, 249 - 251 A.D.

|Other| |Phrygia|, |Synnada,| |Phrygia,| |249| |-| |251| |A.D.|, |AE| |24|
Synnada (Suhut, Turkey today) was of considerable importance as a station on the road from Apameia to the north and east. Synnada was celebrated throughout the Roman Empire for its precious Synnadic marble, a light color marble interspersed with purple spots and veins. From quarries on Mount Persis in neighboring Docimeium, it was conveyed through Synnada to Ephesus, from which it was shipped over sea to Italy.
RP92750. Bronze AE 24, RPC IX 887 (2 spec.), SNG Tb 4199, BMC Phrygia p. 397, 29 var. (palm fronds flank shield); SNGvA 8447 var. (same); SNG Cop 717 var. (same), VF, green patina, light earthen deposits, weight 6.418 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 180o, Synnada (Suhut, Turkey) mint, time of Trajanus Decius, 249 - 251 A.D.; obverse CYNNA∆EΩN, bare head of Hercules right; reverse ∆ΩPIEΩNIΩNΩN, distyle temple, containing ornamented shield, star in arched pediment; ex Tom Vossen; rare; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
The reverse legend means "The Secular (Games) of the Emperor." The Secular Games (Latin Ludi Saeculares) was a three-day and three-night celebration, including sacrifices and theatrical performances, to mark the end of a saeculum (supposedly the longest possible length of human life, considered to be either 100 or 110 years in length) and the beginning of another. Alfldi and Gbl, think this type proves Gallienus intended to hold Saecular Games in 264 A.D. At the time, every emperor hoped to be the founder of a new Golden Age. The stag refers to Diana as patroness of the Saecular Games and divine protectress of Gallienus. The palm branch symbol used with the type is also appropriate for anniversary celebrations.
RA93249. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1626d, RSC IV 925b var. (bust left), Hunter IV 195 corr. (SAECVLARES), RIC V-1 656 var. (same), SRCV III 10345 var. (same), Choice VF, well centered, much silvering, light bumps and scratches, light deposits, weight 3.103 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 265 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse SAECVLARHS AVG, stag right, palm frond right in exergue; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00




  






|OBVERSE LEGENDS|

IMPCAESGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVGCOSV
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGER
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGERM
IMPBALLIENVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERS
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFEL
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG
IMPGALLIENVSVAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENAEAVGVSTAE
GALLIENVMAVGPR
GALLIENVMAVGSENATVS
GALLIENVMPRINC
GALLIENVMSENATVS
GALLIENVSAVG
GALLIENVSAVGGERM
GALLIENVSAVGGERMV
GALLIENVSPAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
GALLIENVSPIVSAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG


REFERENCES|

Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Bourdel, B. Les Antoniniens emis sous le regne conjoint des empereurs Valerien et Gallien, Mariniane, Salonine, Valerien II, Salonin (253-260 Apr. J.-C.). (2017).
Burnett, A. & R. Bland, eds. Coin Hoards from Roman Britain: The Normanby Hoard and Other Roman Coin Hoards. (London, 1988).
Calic, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappes sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Mnzprgung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Kln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbcher 146 (1941).
Gbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Mnzprgung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham, and P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, |Part| I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) http://numismatics.org/ocre/
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trsor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992).
Seaby, H. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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