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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline| ▸ |Gallienus||View Options:  |  |  |   

Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists, and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.

Hierapolis, Phrygia, in Homonoia with Ephesos, 253 - 260 A.D.

|Hierapolis|, |Hierapolis,| |Phrygia,| |in| |Homonoia| |with| |Ephesos,| |253| |-| |260| |A.D.||diassarion|
The title NEOKOPON on the reverse of this type, and other similar coins, has been the topic of debate for more than a century. Hierapolis was honored with a neokoros (imperial temple) either during the reign of Caracalla or Elagabalus. Caracalla rarely gave this honor, but if the honor was given by Caracalla, it would have lasted many decades. If the honor was given during the reign of Elagabalus, as many numismatists and historians believe, it would have been lost with his damnatio. Yet, the title appears here, on a coin struck long after Elagabalus' demise. This coin, however, was struck by Hierapolis honoring its alliance (homonoia) with Ephesos, Ionia. After Elagabalus, at Hierapolis, neokoros titles only appear on homonoia coinage. It seems odd, especially since the title is on the reverse with the name Hierapolis, but the most supported argument is that NEOKOPON refers to a temple at Ephesos, not one at Hierapolis.
RP97256. Bronze diassarion, Franke-Nolle, type IX, 760 - 763 (B/49); Weber HpH p. 74 (A/b); Johnston Hierapolis -; BMC Phrygia -; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -; SNG Mün -; SNG Tüb -, gVF, well centered and struck with full legends, nice dark green patina, some porosity, weight 5.120 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 180o, Phrygia, Hierapolis (near Pamukkale, Turkey) mint, time of Valerius and Gallienus, 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse OMONY/A - K EΦEC-IΩN (clockwise from 3:00), laureate, veiled, and draped bust of Boule right; reverse IEPAΠ-O-ΛEITΩN; NEOKO-PΩN in fields, clockwise from lower left, Nike advancing left, wreath in extended right hand, palm frond against left shoulder in left hand; ex Leu Numismatik web auction 13 (15 August 2020), lot 886; this coin is one of only two specimens of this type listed in Coin Archives auction records spanning the last two decades; very rare; $180.00 (€147.60)
 


Cotiaeum, Phrygia, c. 235 - 238 A.D. Diogenes, Archon

|Other| |Phrygia|, |Cotiaeum,| |Phrygia,| |c.| |235| |-| |238| |A.D.| |Diogenes,| |Archon||diassarion|
The image of Demos, the personification of the People, was used on ancient coinage as early as the 5th century B.C. In Roman times, many towns under Roman domination struck pseudo-autonomous coinage depicting either the bust or head of Demos, or showed him standing with the Emperor, Boule (the city council), or the Demos of another city.
RP97257. Bronze diassarion, SNG Cop 318 - 319; BMC Phrygia p. 162, 20, SNGvA 3776, SNG Righetti 1165, Kurth Demos 398, Martin Demos 16, VF, well centered on a broad flan, nice dark green patina, light earthen deposits, light marks, some die wear, weight 7.915 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Cotiaeum (Kütahya, Turkey) mint, time of Valerian I - Gallienus, c. 235 - 238 A.D.; obverse ∆HMOC (Demos) KOTIAEΩN, diademed bust of the Demos to right, slight drapery over far shoulder; reverse EΠI ∆IOΓENOVC ∆IONVCIOV (struck under Diogenes, son of Dionysios), Zeus seated left on a low backless throne, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, A-PX (archon - Diogenes' title) divided across fields, KOTIAEΩN in exergue; rare; $120.00 (€98.40)
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Antiocheia, Pisidia

|Pisidia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Antiocheia,| |Pisidia||AE| |20|
Paul of Tarsus gave his first sermon to the Gentiles (Acts 13:13-52) at Antiochia in Pisidia, and visited the city once on each of his missionary journeys, helping to make Antioch a center of early Christianity in Anatolia. Antioch in Pisidia is also known as Antiochia Caesareia and Antiochia in Phrygia.
RP97495. Bronze AE 20, SNG BnF 1323 (same obv. die), Krzyzanowska -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Lycia -, VF, brown tone with brassy high points, well centered but tight flan cuts of parts of the obverse legend, weight 3.348 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP CA GALLIHNVS PIVS R, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANTI-OCHI CL, vexillum topped with eagle, flanked by two legionary standards, · S R (Senatus Romanum) in exergue; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $80.00 (€65.60)
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA94196. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 603a, Cunetio 1193, RSC IV 727, RIC V-1 S256, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, gVF, much silvering, edge a bit ragged, weight 3.079 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 9th emission, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, ∆ left; $60.00 (€49.20)
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Irenopolis-Neronias, Cilicia

|Cilicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Irenopolis-Neronias,| |Cilicia||7| |assaria|
Wandering the world in a panther-drawn chariot, Dionysos rode ahead of the maenads and satyrs, who sang loudly and danced, flushed with wine. They were profusely garlanded with ivy and held the thyrsus, a staff topped with a pine cone, a symbol of the immortality of his believers. Everywhere he went he taught men how to cultivate vines and the mysteries of his cult. Whoever stood in his way and refused to revere him was punished with madness.
RP96990. Bronze 7 assaria, Karbach Eirenopolis - (cf. 146-7 same obv. die, diff. rev. type); Leu web auction 12 (2020), 870 (same dies); SNG Levante -; SNG Paris -; SNG PFPS -, aVF/F, green patina with earthen deposits, weight 12.523 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 225o, Irenopolis (Düzici, Turkey) mint, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse ΠOY ΛIK Γ/θ>AΛIHNOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; uncertain round countermark; reverse IPHNOΠOΛE (or similar), Dionysos drinking with his entourage, standing facing, kantharos (wine cup) in his right hand, pedum (shepherd's crook) in his left hand, Pan on right supporting him, Satyr on left standing with outstretched right hand, panther seated left at feet on left, Z (mark of value) right; ex Leu Numismatik web auction 13 (15 Aug 2020), lot 921; the second known; $810.00 (€664.20)
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The infant Jupiter was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.
RA94179. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 730b, RSC IV 342, RIC V-1 S207, Hunter IV S110, SRCV III 10235, gF, near full legends, ragged oval flan, die wear/cracks, edge cracks, weight 3.032 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Rome mint, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI CONS AVG (to Jove protector of the emperor), goat Amaltheia left, S in exergue; $45.00 (€36.90)
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Mars is usually depicted nude and Virtus in military garb, but this figure is identified as Mars because it appears to be male.
RA94172. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 636a, RSC IV 1322, Cunetio 1278, Normanby 264, SRCV III 10416, RIC V-1 S330 (S) corr. (obv. leg.), Hunter IV - (p. lxiv), aVF, tight flan cutting off much of legend, ragged edge, weight 1.953 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, 10th offficina, Rome mint, 261 - 262 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse VIRTVS AVGVSTI (to the valor of the Emperor), Mars (or Virtus) standing left, helmeted, right foot on helmet, wearing military garb, olive branch in right hand, inverted spear in left, foot on helmet, X left; scarce; $60.00 (€49.20)
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
This coin was dedicated to Jupiter the protector. Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.
RA94173. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 626a, RSC IV 361, Hunter IV S60, RIC V-1 S210 var. (N left), SRCV III -, gVF/gF, full legends on a broad flan, sharp attractive portrait, reverse die wear, edge cracks and splits, weight 2.367 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI CONSERVAT (to Jupiter the protector), Jupiter standing left, thunderbolt in right, long scepter in left hand, N right; $60.00 (€49.20)
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.
RA94174. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 641a, RIC V-1 S214, RSC IV 382a, Hunter IV S85, SRCV III 10244, aF, well centered, ragged edge, weight 2.174 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 315o, 11th officina, Rome mint, 264 - 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI PROPVGNAT (Jupiter the defender), Jupiter advancing left left, head right, nude but for cloak flying out behind, brandishing thunderbolt in right, XI left; $32.00 (€26.24)
 


|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The name Ultor was given to Jove because he was believed to be the avenger of wicked men's impieties.
RA94175. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 348e, RIC V-1 S221, RSC IV 402, Hunter IV S12, SRCV III 10247 var. (obv. leg.), VF, centered on a tight flan cutting off part of legends, some silvering, weight 3.394 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 260 - 261 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI VLTORI (to Jupiter the avenger), Jupiter advancing left, head turned back right, nude but for cloak billowing out behind, brandishing thunderbolt in raised right hand, S in left field; $50.00 (€41.00)
 




  






|OBVERSE LEGENDS|

IMPCAESGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPCPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSAVGCOSV
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGER
IMPGALLIENVSAVGGERM
IMPBALLIENVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGERS
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGG
IMPGALLIENVSPFAVGGM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFEL
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVG
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELAVGGERM
IMPGALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG
IMPGALLIENVSVAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSAVG
IMPPLICGALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENAEAVGVSTAE
GALLIENVMAVGPR
GALLIENVMAVGSENATVS
GALLIENVMPRINC
GALLIENVMSENATVS
GALLIENVSAVG
GALLIENVSAVGGERM
GALLIENVSAVGGERMV
GALLIENVSPAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVG
GALLIENVSPFAVGGERM
GALLIENVSPIVSAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFAVG
GALLIENVSPIVSFELIXAVG


REFERENCES|

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Bland, R. & A. Burnett. "Appleshaw, Hampshire" in Normanby Hoard, CHRB VIII (1988), pp. 91-107.
Bourdel, B. Les Antoniniens emis sous le regne conjoint des empereurs Valerien et Gallien, Mariniane, Salonine, Valerien II, Salonin (253-260 Apr. J.-C.). (2017).
Burnett, A. & R. Bland, eds. Coin Hoards from Roman Britain: The Normanby Hoard and Other Roman Coin Hoards. (London, 1988).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham, and P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, |Part| I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) http://numismatics.org/ocre/
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trésor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992).
Seaby, H. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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