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Ancient Greek Coins of Italy (Magna Graecia)
Sicily and Magna Graecia, c. 415 - 100 B.C., Lot of 28 Bronze Coins

|Other| |Syria|, |Sicily| |and| |Magna| |Graecia,| |c.| |415| |-| |100| |B.C.,| |Lot| |of| |28| |Bronze| |Coins||Lot|
The following list was provided by the consignor and has not been verified by FORVM:
1) Panormos, AE25, P. Tarentius, c. 120 BC, Janus / wolf & twins. BMC 11, F, ex Surber
2) Syracuse, AE16, nymph / octopus, SNG Cop 653, VF, porous
3) Syracuse, AE20, bull, SNG Cop 866, VF, patina flaking
4) Syracuse, AE12, nymph / octopus, SNG Cop 679, VF, flaw on chin
5) Syracuse, AE hemilitron, Calciati 16, VF
6) Alaisa, griffin / horse, VF, edge chip 1/5 missing
7) Syracuse, Arethusa / octopus, VF/F
8) Arpi, Apulia, AE20, c. 275-250 BC, horse / bull, SNG ANS 645, F
9) Syracuse, AE trias, female head / octopus, SGCV 1188, VF
10) Rhegion, AE11, c. 351-280 BC, facing lion head / Apollo, SNG ANS 198, aVF, cleaned
11) Leontini, AE16, Calciati 10, F
12) Selinos, Sicily, c. 450-440 BC, cast Æ hexas - dionkion mask of Selinos / Selinon leaf, HGC 2 1236, F
13) Gela, Sicily, AE trias, river god / bull, Calciati 19, VF
14) Syracuse, AE20, Kore / Pegasus, F
15) The Bretti, Ares / Athena, SNG Cop 1642, VF, ex Surber
16) Katane, AE12, c. 186-170 BC, Calciati 13, VF, porous
17) Cales, Campania, AE21, Athena / rooster, SNG Cop 322, VF, porosity, typical edge flaw
18) Sardinia, Tanit / horse head, MAA 57, VF, rough
19) Gela, AE16 triens, c. 420-405 BC, bull / wheel, SNG ANS 105, F, rough
20) Tauromenaion, AE13, Apollo / grapes, Calciati, 12, F, rare
21) Katane, AE23, Janiform Serapis / Demeter, Calciati 14, SNG ANS 1302, F
22) Himera, AE tetras, c. 420-407 BC, rider on goat / Nike, Calciati 31, VF
23) Thurioi, Lucania, AE8, c. 415-400 BC, Athena / bull, HN Italy 1910, VF
24) Gela, AE13, man headed bull / wreath, VF
25) Syracuse, Hieron II, AE21, Poseidon / trident, F
26) Syracuse, AE20, Artemis / thunderbolt, Calciati 142, F
27) The Mamertini, AE26 pentonkion, Ares / warrior
28) one more
LT96158. Bronze Lot, 28 Sicilian and Magna Graecia (Southern Italy) Greek bronze coins, c. 415 - 100 B.C., unattributed to type, no tags or flips, the actual coins in the photograph, as-is, no returns; $850.00 (€697.00)
 


Roman Republic, 4th Century B.C., Aes Formatum, Domed Disk Ingot Fragment

|before| |150| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |4th| |Century| |B.C.,| |Aes| |Formatum,| |Domed| |Disk| |Ingot| |Fragment||Aes| |Formatum|
In Italy, as with other nations, early trade used a system of barter. Aes rude (Latin: "rough bronze"), used perhaps as early as the early 8th century B.C., was the earliest metal proto-currency in central Italy. In the 5th century B.C., bronze replaced cattle as the primary measure of value in trade. Called aes formatum by Haeberlin, this very rare bronze currency was later than the aes rude and a precursor to the issues of aes grave. Presumably, the molten bronze alloy was poured into a shallow hole in the dirt. This left a disc-shaped metal mound with a flat reverse. This specimen is a fragment of broken from a disk for a smaller transaction or to make change. A scale was necessary to measure value for commercial transactions.
LT96163. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, Haeberlin pl. 3, 1 - 12, 202g, 9.6cm, fragment, broken from a large domed ingot, "finder's" shovel marks, weight 202.1 g, maximum diameter 95.9 mm, obverse convex obverse; reverse flat reverse; $160.00 (€131.20)
 


Roman Republic and Central Italy, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C., Aes Rude

|before| |150| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic| |and| |Central| |Italy,| |c.| |5th| |-| |4th| |Century| |B.C.,| |Aes| |Rude||Aes| |Rude|
In Italy, as with other nations, early trade used a system of barter. Aes rude (Latin: "rough bronze"), used perhaps as early as the early 8th century B.C., was the earliest metal proto-currency in central Italy. In the 5th century B.C., bronze replaced cattle as the primary measure of value in trade. Aes rude are rough lumpy bronze ingots with no marks or design, some are flat and oblong, others are square, while many are irregular and shapeless. The metal is mostly copper with roughly 5% tin. Weight varies considerably with some exceeding twelve pounds and others under an ounce. Many smaller examples are fragments of broken larger specimens. A scale was necessary to measure value for commercial transactions.
LT96164. Bronze Aes Rude, cf. BMCRR I p. 1, Haeberlin pl. 1, Vecchi ICC pl. 1, Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2, Bertol-Farac pl. 1, SRCV I 505; maximum length 58mm, weight 227g, $200.00 (€164.00)
 


Roman Republic and Central Italy, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C., Aes Rude Fragments

|Italy|, |Roman| |Republic| |and| |Central| |Italy,| |c.| |5th| |-| |4th| |Century| |B.C.,| |Aes| |Rude| |Fragments||Lot|
In Italy, as with other nations, early trade used a system of barter. Aes rude (Latin: "rough bronze"), used perhaps as early as the early 8th century B.C., was the earliest metal proto-currency in central Italy. In the 5th century B.C., bronze replaced cattle as the primary measure of value in trade. Aes rude are rough lumpy bronze ingots with no marks or design, some are flat and oblong, others are square, while many are irregular and shapeless. The metal is mostly copper with roughly 5% tin. Weight varies considerably with some exceeding twelve pounds and others under an ounce. Many smaller examples are fragments of broken larger specimens. A balance was necessary to measure value for commercial transactions.
LT96143. Bronze Lot, Lot of 20 aes rude fragments, cf. BMCRR I p. 1, Haeberlin pl. 1, Vecchi ICC pl. 1, Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2, SRCV I 505, 13.908g - 65.836g, no tags or flips, actual pieces in the photograph, as-is, no returns; $500.00 (€410.00)
 


Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, c. 340 - 330 B.C.

|Italy|, |Metapontion,| |Lucania,| |Italy,| |c.| |340| |-| |330| |B.C.||stater|
Leukippos (or Leucippus) was a son of king Oinomaos of Pisa. He fell in love with the nymph Daphne and disguised himself as a girl to join her company. When she discovered his true identity in the bath, he was slain by the nymphs. Based on this portrait, clearly his plan was doomed from the start.

Another Leukippos, unrelated to the coin, was a philosopher in the first half of 5th century B.C. This Leukippos was the first Greek to develop the theory of atomism; the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms. His theory was elaborated in far greater detail by his pupil and successor, Democritus. Leukippos was born in Miletus or Abdera.
GI95918. Silver stater, Johnston Class B, 2; SNG Cop 1208; SNG ANS 432 ff.; HN Italy 1575; HGC Italy -, F, centered on a tight flan, toned, bumps and scratches, inscription poorly struck, weight 7.525 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Metapontion (Metaponto, Italy) mint, c. 340 - 330 B.C.; obverse bearded head of Leukippos right, wearing Corinthian helmet, lion head right (control symbol) behind neck, monogram below chin (off flan); reverse barley ear with leaf to left; club above leaf, AMI (magistrate) below leaf on left (off flan), META on right; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $300.00 (€246.00)
 


Neapolis, Campania, Italy, 275 - 250 B.C., Possibly an Ancient Counterfeit

|Italy|, |Neapolis,| |Campania,| |Italy,| |275| |-| |250| |B.C.,| |Possibly| |an| |Ancient| |Counterfeit||drachm|
Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the second millennium B.C. The city was refounded as Neapolis in the sixth century B.C. and became an important hub of Magna Graecia, playing a key role in the merging of Greek culture into Roman society. Naples remained influential under Rome and more so after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, serving as the capital city of the Kingdom of Naples between 1282 and 1816. Thereafter, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
GI95913. Silver drachm, cf. Sambon 546 (controls); SNG BnF 865 (same); SNG ANS 420 (same); HN Italy 588; HGC Italy 456 (R2) (all solid silver, official, none with BΦ), F, a few bumps, encrustations, corrosion, no clear core exposure but the weight is light and signs of possible plating exist, perhaps a silver plated fouree, weight 3.092 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 0o, Neapolis or unofficial(?) mint, 275 - 250 B.C.; obverse diademed head of nymph (Parthenope?) left, BΦ behind neck; reverse man-faced bull (river-god Achelous) walking right, head turned facing, Nike above flying right and placing wreath on bull's head, IΣ below, NEOΠOΛITHΣ exergue; apparently unpublished with BΦ behind the Nymph's neck, we were unable to find another specimen with this control mark; from the Errett Bishop Collection; very rare; $150.00 (€123.00)
 


Roman Republic and Central Italy, Middle 5th - 4th Century B.C., Aes Rude

|before| |150| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic| |and| |Central| |Italy,| |Middle| |5th| |-| |4th| |Century| |B.C.,| |Aes| |Rude||Aes| |Formatum|
In Italy, as with other nations, early trade used a system of barter. Aes rude (Latin: "rough bronze"), used perhaps as early as the early 8th century B.C., was the earliest metal proto-currency in central Italy. In the 5th century B.C., bronze replaced cattle as the primary measure of value in trade. Aes rude are rough lumpy bronze ingots with no marks or design, some are flat and oblong, others are square, while many are irregular and shapeless. The metal is mostly copper with roughly 5% tin. Weight varies considerably with some exceeding twelve pounds and others under an ounce. Many smaller examples are fragments of broken larger specimens. A scale was necessary to measure value for commercial transactions.
RR95747. Bronze Aes Formatum, cf. BMCRR I p. 1, Haeberlin pl. 1, Vecchi ICC pl. 1, Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2, Bertol-Farac pl. 1, SRCV I 505; maximum length 63.5mm, weight 215.456g, c. 5th - 4th Century B.C.; $220.00 (€180.40)
 


Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

|Italy|, |Osco-Latin,| |Central| |Italy,| |Late| |4th| |-| |Early| |3rd| |Century| |B.C.||Aes| |Formatum|
 
GA96779. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. Fallai IAPN 8, pl. 6, 2-2c; Alvarez-Burgos P28; Thurlow-Vecchi -, Fair, weight 13.617 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; cast from a bipod shell; $90.00 (€73.80)
 


Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

|Italy|, |Osco-Latin,| |Central| |Italy,| |Late| |4th| |-| |Early| |3rd| |Century| |B.C.||Aes| |Formatum|
 
GA96094. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. Fallai IAPN 8, pl. 6, 2-2c; Alvarez-Burgos P28; Thurlow-Vecchi -, weight 22.906 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; similar bronze Aes formatum were cast in molds made from seashells, but this specimen was not cast from a mold made with a shell - the shape and lines are the work of a human hand; $130.00 (€106.60)
 


Kroton, Bruttium, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

|Italy|, |Kroton,| |Bruttium,| |c.| |350| |-| |300| |B.C.||AE| |19|
 
SL86538. Bronze AE 19, Attianese 504; BMC Italy p. 356, 114; cf. HN Italy 2225 (2.7g); Weber 1047 (same); München 1478 (head left, 3.3g); SNG ANS -; SNG Cop -, NGC F, strike 4/5, surface 3/5 (2490384-011), weight 5.058 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 270o, Kroton (Crotone, Calbria, Italy) mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse bearded head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse crab seen from above, KPΩ below, within a shallow round incuse; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; NGC| Lookup; very rare; $200.00 (€164.00)
 




  






REFERENCES|

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Jameson, R. Collection R. Jameson. Monnaies grecques antiques. (Paris, 1913-1932).
Johnston, A. "The Bronze Coinage of Metapontum" in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays, pp. 121-136.
Johnston, A. The Coinage of Metapontum, Part 3. ANSNNM 164. (1990).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints. (San Mateo, 1989).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Naville Co. Monnaies grecques antiques S. Pozzi. Auction 1 (4 April 1921, Geneva).
Noe, S. The coinage of Metapontum, Parts 1 and 2. ANSNNM 32 and 47. (1927 and 1931).
Noe, S. The Thurian Distaters. ANSNNM 71. (New York, 1935).
Ravel, O., Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M.P. Vlasto. (London, 1947).
Rutter, N., ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Poole, R., ed. A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Italy. (London, 1873).
Sambon, A. Les monnaies antiques de l'Italie. (Paris, 1903).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1, Europe. (London, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 1: Italy - Sicily. (New Jersey, 1981).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 1: Hispania-Sikelia. (Berlin, 1981).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothéque Nationale, Vol. 6, Part 1: Italy (Etruria-Calabria). (Paris, 2003).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain II, Lloyd Collection. (London. 1933-1937).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain III, R.C. Lockett Collection, Part 1: Spain - Italy (gold and silver). (London, 1938).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain V, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. (London. 1951 - 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 1: Spain (Emporiae, Rhoda)-Italy. (London, 1940).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain X, John Morcom Collection. (Oxford, 1995).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 1: Etruria - Calabria. (New York, 1969).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 2: Lucania. (New York, 1972).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 3: Bruttium - Sicily 1 (Abacaenum-Eryx). (New York, 1975).
Taliercio Mensitieri, M. "Simboli, lettere, sigle sul bronzo di Neapolis" in Studi Breglia.
van Keuren, F. The Coinage of Heraclea Lucaniae. (Rome, 1994).
Williams, R. Silver Coinage of Velia. (London, 1992).

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