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Roman Coins of the Tetrarchy
Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO IMPERATORIS dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Imperators. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RL94876. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 133c, Cohen VII 55, SRCV IV 14851, Hunter V 58 var. (2nd officina), VF, desert patina, well centered, weight 6.956 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 310 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, altar at feet on left, star upper left, A right, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. The figure depicted is the statue of the Spirit of the Roman People which was then in the Roman Forum (it is now lost). The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted.
RL94877. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 149b, SRCV IV 14841, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V 124 var. (2nd officina), aVF, well centered, dark green patina, earthen deposits, scratches, weight 5.691 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Alexandria mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genius standing facing, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, X lower left, Γ right, ALE in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
"This reverse is modeled after the famous statue of the Spirit of the Roman People in the Roman Forum. It is unclear when this statue was last seen as it is now lost. Although the coins celebrate a wide range of spirits (e.g., Rome, Augustus, the Army, etc.), the basic design comes from the same statue...The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted." -- Roman Bronze Coins From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D. by Victor Failmezger
RL94878. Billon follis, Hunter V 66 (also parallel ties and 3rd officina) RIC VI Alexandria 100a, SRCV IV 14730, Cohen VII 40, aVF, centered on a broad flan, obv. double strike, porosity, encrustations lower reverse, weight 6.067 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Alexandria mint, as caesar, late 308 - 310 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right, with parallel ties; reverse GENIO CAESARIS (to the guardian spirit of the prince), Genius standing slightly left, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, pouring liquor from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, K lower left, Γ over P right, ALE in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
Maximian was emperor of the West in the Tetrarchy, abdicating with Diocletian in 305. In 306 he resumed the throne with his son Maxentius but was again forced to abdicate in 308. He took the throne again in 310 but this time he was defeated by Constantine the Great and forced to commit suicide.
RL94879. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 53 (also 4th officina), SRCV IV 13115, Cohen VI 53, RIC V-2 607 var. (no dot exergue), VF, highlighting desert patina, full border obv., small spot of corrosion on obv., rev. die wear, rev. slightly off center, weight 3.883 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, c. 292 - 294 A.D.; obverse IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Maximianus standing right, holding scepter and receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, holding long scepter, ∆ between them, XXI• in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $65.00 SALE |PRICE| $58.50


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|NEW
On 1 March 293, Diocletian and Maximian appointed Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi ("Four Rulers of the World"). The four Tetrarchs established their capitals close to the Roman frontier: Diocletian at Nicomedia in Bithynia (Izmit, Turkey), Maximian at Mediolanum in Italy (Milan, Italy), Constantius at Augusta Treverorum in Gallia Belgica (Trier, Germany), and Galerius at Sirmium in Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).
RL94881. Billon post-reform radiate, Hunter V 88 (also 5th officina), RIC VI 16b, SRCV IV 13315, Cohen VI 54, Choice gVF, nice near black desert patina with highlighting red earthen deposits, excellent portrait, well centered, weight 3.939 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, 5th Officina Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, c. 295 - 299 A.D.; obverse IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Maximianus standing right, holding short scepter and receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter; Jupiter standing left, holding long scepter in right hand, K E low center between them; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00


Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis|NEW
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO IMPERATORIS dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Imperators. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RL94871. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 79, SRCV IV 14523, Cohen VII 48, Hunter V -, aVF, dark patina, light corrosion, weight 7.648 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, late 308 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing left, cornucopia in left hand, pouring libations from patera in right, X left, A over K right, ALE in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|NEW
In 297, Maximian began an offensive against the Berbers in Mauritania, North Africa. He drove them back into their homelands in the Atlas Mountains and spent the rest of the winter in Carthage. On 10 March 298, Maximian celebrated a Triumph in Carthage to conclude his campaign.
RL94873. Copper post-reform radiate, Hunter V 83 (also 2nd officina), RIC VI Cyzicus 16b, SRCV IV 13315, Cohen VI 54, Choice F, well centered, earthen deposits, light scratches, weight 3.395 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 295 - 299 A.D.; obverse IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Maximian standing right receiving victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, KB in center; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|NEW
In 297, Maximian began an offensive against the Berbers in Mauritania, North Africa. He drove them back into their homelands in the Atlas Mountains and spent the rest of the winter in Carthage. On 10 March 298, Maximian celebrated a Triumph in Carthage to conclude his campaign.
RL94874. Copper post-reform radiate, Hunter V 83 (also 2nd officina), RIC VI Cyzicus 16b, SRCV IV 13315, Cohen VI 54, aVF, desert patina, weight 2.613 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 295 - 299 A.D.; obverse IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Maximian standing right receiving victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, KB in center; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $65.00 SALE |PRICE| $58.50


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
On 11 November 308, attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, at the Congress of Carnuntum, the Tetrarchy declared Maxentius a public enemy, Licinius was proclaimed Augustus, and Constantine I was made Caesar of Britain and Gaul.
RL94875. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 94a, SRCV IV 14725, Cohen VII 40, Hunter V 37 var. (8th officina), F, earthen encrusted, scratches, weight 7.413 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. late 308 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse GENIO CAESARIS * (to the guardian spirit of the prince), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, crescent with horns upward over ∆ right, •ANT in exergue; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00


Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|
In 296, Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Armenia. Galerius invaded Mesopotamia, but was defeated outside Ctesiphon by the Persian Sassanid king Narseh. He was forced to retreat across the Euphrates into Syria, where he joined Diocletian at Antioch. In 297, Galerius remained in Syria and prepared for another campaign against the Sassanids. He recruited veterans from Illyria and Moesia. In 298, Galerius invaded with an army of 25,000 men and decisively defeated king Narseh. He captured the Persian camp, including Narseh's family, harem and treasure. Narseh signed a treaty that would last for 40 years. The Persians accepted Roman dominion over Armenia and northern Mesopotamia. The Tigris became the boundary between Rome and the Sassanid Empire.
RL94864. Copper post-reform radiate, RIC VI Alexandria p. 667, 48b; Cohen VII 22; SRCV IV 14417; Hunter V 74 var. (2nd officina), F, black patina with highlighting earthen "desert patina" deposits, porous, edge crack, weight 2.338 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, as caesar, 296 - 297 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Emperor on left, standing right, wearing military dress, baton in right hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, Jupiter nude but for cloak on shoulders, standing left leaning on long scepter in left hand, Victory holding wreath in right hand and palm frond in left hand, A lower center, ALE in exergue; RIC VI lists this type as common but this is the first specimen handled by FORVM, from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00











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