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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline||View Options:  |  |  | 

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||sestertius|
Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.
RB91611. Orichalcum sestertius, Göbl MIR 38cc, RIC V-1 J248, Cohen V 1295, Hunter IV J33, SRCV III 10495, F/aF, well centered, tight squared flan (typical for the period), scratches and scrapes, weight 19.394 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Virtus standing left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded shield, spear vertical behind in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $50.00 (€46.00)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Antiocheia, Pisidia

|Pisidia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Antiocheia,| |Pisidia||AE| |20|NEW
Paul of Tarsus gave his first sermon to the Gentiles (Acts 13:13-52) at Antiochia in Pisidia, and visited the city once on each of his missionary journeys, helping to make Antioch a center of early Christianity in Anatolia. Antioch in Pisidia is also known as Antiochia Caesareia and Antiochia in Phrygia.
RP97495. Bronze AE 20, SNG BnF 1323 (same obv. die), Krzyzanowska -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Lycia -, VF, brown tone with brassy high points, well centered but tight flan cuts of parts of the obverse legend, weight 3.348 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP CA GALLIHNVS PIVS R, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANTI-OCHI CL, vexillum topped with eagle, flanked by two legionary standards, · S R (Senatus Romanum) in exergue; $80.00 (€73.60)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
This type commemorates vows made to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. During the siege of Milan, at a late hour but while he was still lingering with pleasures of the table, a false alarm was suddenly given, reporting that Aureolus, at the head of all his forces, had made a desperate sally from the town. Gallienus, who was never deficient in personal bravery, started from his silken couch, and without allowing himself time either to put on his armor or to assemble his guards, he mounted on horseback and rode full speed towards the supposed place of the attack. There he was ambushed by enemies from among his own officers. Amidst the nocturnal tumult, he received a mortal wound from an uncertain hand. Perhaps his request to Apollo was too specific and asked only for protection from Aureolus?

The centaur Chiron was the tutor of Apollo and the first to teach him the medicinal use of herbs. The exact meaning of the globe and rudder are more obscure but likely allude to Apollo assisting Gallienus in steering the "ship of state."
RA94210. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 738b, RIC V-1 S164, RSC IV 73, Hunter IV 99 corr. (says trophy vice rudder), SRCV III 10178, aVF, tight flan cutting off part of reverse legend, centers weak, light deposits, weight 2.345 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Rome mint, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right; reverse APOLLINI CONS AVG (to Apollo the preserver of the Emperor), centaur Chiron walking left, globe in right hand, rudder in left hand, H in exergue; $36.00 (€33.12)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
During the siege of Milan, at a late hour but while he was still lingering with pleasures of the table, a false alarm was suddenly given, that Aureolus, at the head of all his forces, had made a desperate sally from the town. Gallienus, who was never deficient in personal bravery, started from his silken couch, and without allowing himself time either to put on his armor, or to assemble his guards, he mounted on horseback, and rode full speed towards the supposed place of the attack. Ambushed by enemies among his own officers, amidst the nocturnal tumult he received a mortal wound from an uncertain hand.
RA94204. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 375x, RIC V-1 S325, RSC IV 1288, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, Choice F, well centered, edge splits, weight 3.590 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 260 - 261 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Mars standing left, wearing helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded shield, spear vertical behind in left, VI right; $38.00 (€34.96)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Mars, the male god of war, is usually shown nude and Virtus, the female personification of courage and valor, is always shown clothed. This figure, however, appears to be male and thus, Mars, or perhaps the emperor.
RA94207. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 344a, RIC V-1 S317, RSC IV 1221c, SRCV III 10401, Hunter IV S32 var. (right foot on helmet), gVF, porosity, beginning of obverse legend weak, reverse off center, weight 3.414 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 260- 261 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Mars standing slightly left, head left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, globe in right hand, inverted spear in left hand, P (1st officina) right; scarce; $50.00 (€46.00)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The "zoo series" of coins calling on Diana to protect the Emperor was struck late in Gallienus' reign. His father, Valerian, had been particularly dedicated to the worship of Diana the Preserver and had dedicated a temple to her at Rome. Diana apparently did not favor Gallienus. Not long after this coin was struck, he was assassinated near Milan while attempting to deal with the usurper Aureolus.
RA94203. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 728b, RIC V-1 S177, RSC IV 154, SRCV III 10199 var. (IMP GALLIENVS AVG), aVF, rough corrosion, reverse a little off center, weight 3.035 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Rome mint, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse DIANAE CONS AVG (to Diana protector of the Emperor), doe walking right, head turned back left, E (5th officina) in exergue; $24.00 (€22.08)


Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Alexandreia Troas, Troas

|Troas|, |Trebonianus| |Gallus,| |June| |or| |July| |251| |-| |July| |or| |August| |253| |A.D.,| |Alexandreia| |Troas,| |Troas||AE| |21|
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul) is on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of the west coast of Anatolia, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). The city was founded by Antigonus around 310 B.C. with the name Antigoneia and was populated with the inhabitants of Cebren, Colone, Hamaxitus, Neandria, and Scepsis. About 301 B.C., Lysimachus improved the city and re-named it Alexandreia. Among the few structure ruins remaining today are a bath, an odeon, a theater and gymnasium complex and a stadium. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.
RP93130. Bronze AE 21, BMC Troas p. 27, 143; Bellinger Troas A405; SNGvA 1480 var. (rev. legend); RPC Online IX 424 ff. (obv. legend variations); SNG Cop -, F/VF, scratches, obverse legend weakly struck/worn, scratches, edge cracks, weight 5.817 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Jun/Jul 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverse IMP C VIBI TRIB GALLVS AVG (or similar), laureate, draped bust right, from behind; reverse COL AVG O, TROA (clockwise above, ending in exergue), horse grazing right; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $70.00 (€64.40)


Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D., Thessalonica, Macedonia

|Thessalonika|, |Maximinus| |I| |Thrax,| |20| |March| |235| |-| |Late| |May| |238| |A.D.,| |Thessalonica,| |Macedonia||AE| |27|
The god Kabeiros is similar in appearance to Dionysos and the rites of his cult were likely similar to those of the Dionysian mysteries. The attributes of Kabeiros are a rhyton and hammer.
RP93127. Bronze AE 27, Touratsoglou p. 252, 11 (V6/R10); BMC Macedonia p. 123, 112 (same dies); Varbanov 4504 (R4); SNG ANS 874 - 875 var. (obv. legend); SNG Cop -, gVF, nice portrait, off center and uneven strike with weak areas, attractive brown tone, flan adjustment marks, light porosity, tiny deposits, weight 12.012 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 0o, Thessalonika (Salonika, Greece) mint, 20 Mar 235 - late May 238 A.D.; obverse AV K Γ IOV OVH MAΞIMINOC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ΘECCAΛONEIKEΩN, Nike standing half left, head left, holding small figure of Kabeiros standing left in her extended right hand, palm frond in her left hand, Kabeiros holds a rhyton and hammer; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $140.00 (€128.80)


Kingdom of Edessa, Mesopotamia, Abgar X with Gordian III, 239 - 242 A.D.

|Kingdom| |of| |Edessa|, |Kingdom| |of| |Edessa,| |Mesopotamia,| |Abgar| |X| |with| |Gordian| |III,| |239| |-| |242| |A.D.||AE| |23|
Abgar X Frahad bar Manu was raised to the throne when Gordian III recovered Mesopotamia from the Persians. His rule and the Kingdom of Edessa both ended with Gordian's assassination and a Sassanid takeover in 244 A.D.
RP97599. Bronze AE 23, RPC VII.2 U2952, SNG Hunterian 2579, SNG Cop 225; BMC Arabia p. 114, 144 - 147; Babelon Edessa 96, F, black patina with orange earthen fill, well centered obverse, pitted, weight 8.953 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 135o, Mesopotamia, Edessa (Urfa, Sanliurfa, Turkey) mint, 239 - 242 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M ANT ΓOP∆IANOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right, from behind, star lower right; reverse ABΓAPOC - BACIΛEYC, mantled bust of Abgar right, bearded, wearing a diademed Parthian-style tiara ornamented with a rosette, star behind; $50.00 (€46.00)


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Samosata, Commagene

|Roman| |Syria|, |Philip| |I| |the| |Arab,| |February| |244| |-| |End| |of| |September| |249| |A.D.,| |Samosata,| |Commagene||provincial| |sestertius|
Samosata was an ancient city on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly constructed Atatürk Dam. The founder of the city was Sames, a Satrap of Commagene who made it his capital. The city was sometimes called Antiochia in Commagene and served as the capital for the Hellenistic Kingdom of Commagene from c. 160 BC until it was surrendered to Rome in 72. A civil metropolis from the days of Emperor Hadrian, Samosata was the home of the Legio VI Ferrata and later Legio XVI Flavia Firma, and the terminus of several military roads. Seven Christian martyrs were crucified in 297 in Samosata for refusing to perform a pagan rite in celebration of the victory of Maximian over the Sassanids. It was at Samosata that Julian II had ships made in his expedition against Sapor, and it was a natural crossing-place in the struggle between Heraclius and Chosroes in the 7th century.
RY92573. Bronze provincial sestertius, BMC Galatia p. 122, 48; RPC VIII U8340; Butcher CRS 31a; SNG Righetti 1843; SNG Hunterian II 2611, VF, nice portrait, well centered on broad flan, porous, a few pits, weight 17.563 g, maximum diameter 33.0 mm, die axis 180o, Samosata (site now flooded by the Atatürk Dam) mint, Feb 244 - End Sep 249 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ΦΛ CAMOCATEWN MHTROP KOM, Tyche of Samosata (city-goddess) seated left on rocks, wearing turreted crown, grain in right hand, eagle perched facing on right arm with wings open and head left, small Pegasos galloping left at her feet; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $110.00 (€101.20)











Catalog current as of Wednesday, May 12, 2021.
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