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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline||View Options:  |  |  | 

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||sestertius|
Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.
RB91611. Orichalcum sestertius, Göbl MIR 38cc, RIC V-1 J248, Cohen V 1295, Hunter IV J33, SRCV III 10495, F/aF, well centered, tight squared flan (typical for the period), scratches and scrapes, weight 19.394 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Virtus standing left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded shield, spear vertical behind in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
This very unusual reverse legend is found only on this type. Some authorities interpret Iubentus as an alternative spelling for Iuventus, which means youth. This would be a strange legend for Gallienus who was no longer youthful. Some otherwise very similar specimens clearly read LVBENTVS AVG. This might be translated as the joyfulness of the emperor, meaning the joyfulness he brought to the people.
RA94164. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1641a, RSC IV 415, RIC V-1 S615 (S), SRCV III 10249, Hunter IV - (p. lxx), gF, full border strike on a wide flan, some silvering, weak centers, light deposits, weight 3.03 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse IVBENTVS AVG (Joyfulness of the Emperor), Emperor standing half left, head left, Victory in right hand, spear upward in left hand, VIIC• (= COS VII) in exergue; scarce; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Macrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria

|Roman| |Syria|, |Macrinus,| |11| |April| |217| |-| |8| |June| |218| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Seleucis| |and| |Pieria,| |Syria||as|NEW
The Battle of Antioch. After Macrinus foolishly cut legionary pay, Legio III Gallica hailed Elagabalus as emperor on 16 May 218. Macrinus sent cavalry but they too joined Elagabalus. Macrinus finally abandoned his pay cut and paid a bonus, but it was too late. Legion II Parthica defected. General Gannys, the commander of Elagabalus' forces, decisively defeated Macrinus was just outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Macrinus shaved off his hair and beard and fled, disguised as a member of the military police. He was recognized by a centurion at Chalcedon on the Bosporus, taken back to Antioch and executed.
RY93578. Bronze as, McAlee 743 (very rare), MacDonald Hunter III 242, aVF, desert patina with red earthen highlighting, porous, tight flan, weight 4.183 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Mid May - 8 Jun 218 A.D.; obverse AVT K M O C MAKPINOC CE, laureate head right, bare shoulder seen from behind; reverse AVT K M O ∆ ANTONINOC, laureate head right, bare shoulder seen from behind, S - C divided low across field; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 47 (28 Jun 2018), lot 498; very rare; $95.00 SALE |PRICE| $85.00


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Samosata, Commagene, Syria

|Roman| |Syria|, |Philip| |II,| |July| |or| |August| |247| |-| |Late| |249| |A.D.,| |Samosata,| |Commagene,| |Syria||AE| |29|NEW
Samosata was an ancient city on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly constructed Atatürk Dam. The founder of the city was Sames, a Satrap of Commagene who made it his capital. The city was sometimes called Antiochia in Commagene and served as the capital for the Hellenistic Kingdom of Commagene from c. 160 BC until it was surrendered to Rome in 72. A civil metropolis from the days of Emperor Hadrian, Samosata was the home of the Legio VI Ferrata and later Legio XVI Flavia Firma, and the terminus of several military roads. Seven Christian martyrs were crucified in 297 in Samosata for refusing to perform a pagan rite in celebration of the victory of Maximian over the Sassanids. It was at Samosata that Julian II had ships made in his expedition against Sapor, and it was a natural crossing-place in the struggle between Heraclius and Chosroes in the 7th century.
RY93572. Bronze AE 29, BMC Galatia p. 122, 56; Butcher 33c; SNG Cop 23 corr. (Philip I), Choice VF, well centered, nice portrait, toned, light deposits, porosity, weight 17.448 g, maximum diameter 28.9 mm, die axis 0o, Samosata (site now flooded by the Atatürk Dam) mint, Jul/Aug 247 - Late 249 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYAI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CAMOCATEΩN, city goddess seated left on rock, turreted, veiled, right arm on leg, grain ears downward in right hand, left hand on rock, Pegasus leaping left at feet; ex Roma e-sale 47 (28 Jun 2018), 517; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.
RA96400. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1617i, RIC V-1 S668, SRCV III 10402, RSC IV 1237b corr. (bust not cuirassed), VF, well centered, dark toning, some legend weak, holed, closed crack from hole to edge, weight 4.121 g, maximum diameter 22.66 mm, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 266 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Virtus standing left, helmeted and wearing military garb, resting right hand on shield set on ground, spear with point up in left, star in exergue; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, purchased in Israel, 1971; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Akko-Ptolemais, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Akko-Ptolemais,| |Phoenicia||AE| |27|
Akko was refounded as a Roman colony, colonia Ptolemais, probably in 53 or 54 A.D., the last year of Claudius' reign or the first year of Nero’s. Akko was one of hundreds of cities in the Roman provinces that minted civic coins. In the mid 3rd century cities stopped producing their own coins. The last city coins were struck under Gallienus, and Akko was among the very last cities to strike its own coins.
JD96394. Bronze AE 27, BMC Phoenicia p. 138, 50 var. (obv. leg.); Rosenberger 86 var. (same); Kadman Akko 256 var. (same, draped); Sofaer 293 ff. (draped, etc.); SNG Cop -, aF, rough green patina, light earthen deposits, a little off center, weight 13.158 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, Ake Ptolemais (Acre, Israel) mint, 253 - 268 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES LIC GALLIEN[VS AVG], laureate head right; reverse COL P-TOL, portable shrine containing a statue of Zeus Heliopolites, shrine consisting of a frame within two pillars supporting a architrave with hatched decoration, two carrying poles projecting from bottom, figure of deity within standing facing on rock or base, wearing short chiton, double axe in right hand, harpe(?) in left hand; an unpublished variant of a very rare type; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1977 surface find at Caesarea Maritima, Israel; $550.00 SALE |PRICE| $495.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia||dichalkon|
Romans refounded Tyre as a colony in 64 B.C., when Pompey annexed Phoenicia to the Roman Empire. Tyre flourished under the Rome and remained a Roman port city, even under the Byzantine Empire, until the 7th century when it was taken by Muslim conquest.
RP96396. Bronze dichalkon, BMC Phoenicia p. 289, 465 var. (murex shell on right); Rouvier -; Baramki AUB -; SNG Hunt -; SNG Cop -, F, rough dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 16.345 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre mint, Oct 253 - Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate bust right; reverse COL TVRO METR, river-god (Adonis?) standing facing, head left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right hand dropping incense on flaming altar at her feet on left, long grounded reed vertical in left hand, murex shell on left; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1971 Caesarea Maritima surface find; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; $450.00 SALE |PRICE| $400.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The animal on the reverse is obscure but even allowing for all possibilities (doe, antelope, gazelle, goat), most references are missing any types with this obverse legend, IMP GALLIENVS AVG and the officina number XI in the exergue on the reverse.
RA95383. Billon antoninianus, cf. Göbl MIR 745z (stag), RIC V-1 -, RSC IV -, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, Cunetio -, aVF/aF, reverse off center, corrosion, long crack, weight 3.092 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, 11th officina, Rome mint, 267 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse DIANAE CONS AVG (to Diana protector of the Emperor), stag(?) right, XI in exergue; very rare; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The reverse legend translates Libero Patri Conservatori Augusti, which identifies Liber Pater, a panther sacred to Bacchus, as a protector of the emperor. Gallienus also identified Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, and others on coins as his protectors.
RA94165. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 713b, RIC V-1 S230, Hunter IV S116, RSC IV 586, SRCV III 10281, Hunter IV 112, gF, nice blue green patina with highlighting earthen deposits, centered on an oval flan, weakly struck centers, weight 2.853 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 270o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left, B in exergue; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The obverse legend translates Libero Patri Conservatori Augusti, which identifies Liber Pater, a panther sacred to Bacchus, as a protector of the emperor. Gallienus also identified Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, and others on coins as his protectors.
RA94167. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 713b, RIC V-1 S230, Hunter IV S112, RSC IV 586, SRCV III 10281, VF, traces of silvering, centered on a oval flan, edge ragged, flan cracks, weight 2.520 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left, B in exergue; $55.00 SALE |PRICE| $49.00











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