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Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Alexandreia Troas, Troas

|Troas|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.,| |Alexandreia| |Troas,| |Troas|, |AE| |19|
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul) was an ancient Greek city on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of Turkey's western coast, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). Among the few structure ruins remaining today are a bath, an odeon, a theater and gymnasium complex and a stadium. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.
MA95719. Bronze AE 19, Bellinger A451; SNG Copenhagen 204, VF, tight flan cutting off parts of legends, porosity, weight 3.965 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP LICIN GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, from behind; reverse COL AVG, horse grazing right, TRO in exergue; $30.00 SALE |PRICE| $27.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
This type was struck both at Rome and at Antioch. One way to distinguish Gordian's Antioch mint coins from Rome mint coins is by letter shape, in particular, the letter M; on Antioch coins M is formed with a V in the middle, thus IVI, whereas the Rome mint M resembles two lambdas, thus ΛΛ.
MA95646. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 34, RSC IV 17, Hunter III 14, SRCV III 8600, VF, excellent toned, flow lines, light marks and scratches, reverse a little off center, weight 3.715 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 1 Jan 240 - c. Mar 240 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing half left, head left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

|Members| |Auction| |Listed|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
In 258, Valerian put to death a number of church leaders, including Rome's bishop, Sixtus. Christians belonging to the nobility or the Roman Senate were deprived of their property and exiled. Thinking that the Christian had great hidden treasures, Valerian ordered the leading deacon, Laurentius, him to hand them over. Laurentius agreed but asked for three days to gather them to together. He assembled the poor, aged and sick in Rome and brought them before the emperor, saying "These are the true treasures of the church." Furious, Laurentius was ordered to suffer a slow and cruel death. On 10 August 258, Laurentius was scourged, beaten with irons, and had his joints dislocated. He was then placed on a grate over a fire and slowly roasted to death. Having lain there for some time, he is reported to have called out to the emperor a Latin couplet, "Assum est, inquit, versa et manduca" (This side is done, turn me over and have a bite). His executioner obliged and after he had been tormented for a considerable time, he finally lifted his eyes to heaven and with calmness yielded his spirit to God. Laurentius (Saint Lawrence) is the patron saint of comedians.
MA95638. Silver antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1684e (Samosata), Hunter IV 73, SRCV III 9955, RIC V-1 285 (Antioch), RSC IV 152 (Antioch), VF, well centered, nice portrait, weight 3.960 g, maximum diameter 23.6 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Syrian mint, 256 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Emperors standing confronted, sacrificing at altar in center, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium; $33.33 (30.66)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.
MA95640. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1670k, RSC IV 927a, RIC V-1 S610, SRCV III 10346, Hunter IV - (p. lxx), VF/F, well centered, porous, weight 4.412 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Apollo standing left, laurel branch downward in right hand, resting left elbow on tripod lebes, PXV in exergue; $20.00 (18.40)


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Antiocheia, Pisidia

|Pisidia|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.,| |Antiocheia,| |Pisidia|, |AE| |34|
Paul the Apostle and Barnabas, as recounted in the Acts of the Apostles. Paul's sermon in the Jewish synagogue there caused a great stir among the citizens, but the ensuing conflict with the Jews led to the expulsion of the two Christian missionaries from the city. They returned later and appointed elders for the Christian community there. Paul also visited the region in both his second and his third journeys. Paul's "persecutions and sufferings" at Antioch are spoken of in 2 Timothy 3:11. One of the most important building complexes of Antioch is the Great Basilica identified as the "Church of St. Paul" by an altar which was found in Yalvac market place. The foundations at the south side of the basilica are thought to belong to the synagogue where St. Paul first preached to the Gentiles. The altar is dated to the 6th century and the inscription reads AΓIOΣ ΠAYΛOΣ. It is not clear if the basilica was used for another purpose in its earlier levels. Conservation and lifting of the mosaics will shed further light on this important building.St Pauls of Antioch
RP94284. Bronze AE 34, Kryzanowska XII/61; SNG PfPs 93; SNG BnF 1194; SNG Cop 71; SNGvA 4954; BMC Lycia p. 190, 80, Choice VF, nice dark green patina, broad flan, parts of legends weak, small central depressions, weight 24.360 g, maximum diameter 33.7 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, 29 Jul 238 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CAE ANTIOCH COL, Gordian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen to right, two sigla standards in background, S R (Senatus Romanus) in exergue; $220.00 SALE |PRICE| $198.00


Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

|Trebonianus| |Gallus|, |Trebonianus| |Gallus,| |June| |or| |July| |251| |-| |July| |or| |August| |253| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
In Roman Coins and their Values III, David Sear notes, "Under Trebonianus Gallus the fineness of the antoninianus is generally around 35% whilst the average weight is about 3.4 grams."
RS93264. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 3d, RIC IV 79 (S), SRCV III 9622, Hunter III 56 var. (1st officina), aVF, toned, flow lines, well centered, strike a little weak, weight 3.390 g, maximum diameter 21.83 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 251 - 252 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind, VI below; reverse ADVENTVS AVG (arrival of the Emperor), Emperor on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, transverse scepter in left hand, VI (very weak) in exergue; scarce; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

|Philip| |I|, |Philip| |I| |the| |Arab,| |February| |244| |-| |End| |of| |September| |249| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.
RS93262. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 26b, RSC IV 3, Hunter III 19, SRCV III 8916, choice gVF, superb portrait, excellent centering and strike, light tone, flow lines, weight 4.833 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 244 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse ADVENTVS AVGG (arrival of the two emperors), emperor on horseback left, paludamentum on shoulders flying behind, raising right hand in salute, long scepter in left; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00


Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

|Trebonianus| |Gallus|, |Trebonianus| |Gallus,| |June| |or| |July| |251| |-| |July| |or| |August| |253| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
In Roman Coins and their Values III, David Sear notes, "Under Trebonianus Gallus the fineness of the antoninianus is generally around 35% whilst the average weight is about 3.4 grams."
RS93263. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 2e, RIC IV 79 (S), Hunter III 56, SRCV III 9622, VF, toned, uneven strike with parts of legends unstruck, weight 3.178 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 251 - 252 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind, two pellets below; reverse ADVENTVS AVG (arrival of the Emperor), Emperor on horseback left, paludamentum on shoulders flying behind, raising right hand in salute, transverse scepter in left hand, two pellets in exergue; scarce; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

|Valerian| |I|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
This ironic reverse utterly failed to foresee Valerian's fate. In 260 A.D., after four years of great losses in battle and to plague, Valerian arranged for talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sasanian (Parthian) Emperor Shapur but was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown. In Rome, it was rumored that Shapur used his stuffed body as a footstool.
RS90037. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 1685e (Samosata), RSC IV 189 (Antioch), RIC V-1 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967 (uncertain Syrian mint), VF/F, well centered on a broad flan, toned, struck with a worn reverse die, weight 4.358 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Syrian mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS (to the restorer of the East), turreted female (Oriens) standing right, presenting wreath to Valerian, standing left, wearing military attire, spear vertical in left hand; $24.00 SALE |PRICE| $21.60


Volusian, c. November 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

|Volusian|, |Volusian,| |c.| |November| |251| |-| |July| |or| |August| |253| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.
RS93314. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 224(a) (R), RSC IV 2b, SRCV III 9738, Hunter III - (p. cviii), VF, attractive style, well centered, darkened bronze and turquoise encrustations, flan cracks, weight 2.800 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Antioch mint, 252 A.D.; obverse IMP C V AF GAL VOLVSIANO AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind, three pellets below; reverse ADVENTVS AVG (arrival of the Emperor), Trebonianus Gallus on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long scepter in left hand, paludamentum flying behind, horse's right foreleg raised; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $220.00 SALE |PRICE| $198.00











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