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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline||View Options:  |  |  | 

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
The Victories of the Emperor Gallienus

|Roman| |Coin| |Books|, |The| |Victories| |of| |the| |Emperor| |Gallienus|
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BL43184. The Numbering of the Victories of the Emperor Gallienus and of the Loyalty of his Legions by Andreas Alfoldi, Attic Books Numismatic Chronicle reprint series, 1977 reprint, paperback, 62 pages, priced at FORVM's cost!; $3.00 SALE PRICE $2.70


The Coinage of Trajan Decius (A.D. 249 - 251)

|Roman| |Coin| |Books|, |The| |Coinage| |of| |Trajan| |Decius| |(A.D.| |249| |-| |251)|
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BL43194. The Coinage of Trajan Decius (AD 249 - 251) by Augustus Brown, published by the author c. 1960, 8vo, paperback, 20 pages plus one plate, priced below FORVM's $5 cost!; $3.00 SALE PRICE $2.70


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.||denarius|NEW
Lucifer means lightbringer, from the Latin lux "light" and ferre "to bear or bring." "Lucifer" is found in only one place in the Bible, Isaiah 14:12, but only in the King James and related versions: "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! The King James Version is based on the Vulgate, the Latin translation of Jerome. Jerome translated the Hebrew helel (bright or brilliant one) as "lucifer," which was a reasonable Latin equivalent. And yet it is this lucifer, the bright one or lightbearer, that became a name for Satan, Lord of Darkness.
RS111522. Silver denarius, RIC IV 127 (R), RSC IV 69, Hunter III 47, SRCV III 8673, Choice gVF/EF, lustrous, well centered, flow lines, obv. die wear, sprue remnants, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.727 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, issued for marriage to Tranquillina, 241 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing right, lit long transverse torch right in both hands; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 124 (8 Jan 2023), lot 907 (part of); scarce; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.||denarius|NEW
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RS111518. Silver denarius, RIC IV 111, RSC IV 39, Hunter III 43, SRCV III 8672, Choice EF, mint luster, well centered and struck, die wear, edge cracks, weight 2.593 g, maximum diameter 20.44 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 1 Jan 241 - Jul 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse AETERNITATI AVG, Sol standing slightly right, radiate head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 124 (8 Jan 2023), lot 881 (part of); $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.
RS111591. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 84, RSC IV 109, Hunter III 51, SRCV III 8615, VF, luster, broad flan, flow lines, light tone, rev. struck with a worn die, flan flaw on the obverse, weight 4.749 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 1 Jan 241 - Jul 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse IOVI STATORI (to Jove who upholds), Jupiter standing facing, head right, long scepter vertical in right hand, thunderbolt in left hand; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 124 (8 Jan 2023), lot 986 (part of); $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
This coin is dedicated to the goddess Fides for her good quality of preserving the public peace by keeping the army true to its allegiance. Perhaps it worked, or perhaps not. We don't know. Sasanian sources claim that Gordian III died in the Roman defeat at Battle of Misiche near modern Fallujah (Iraq). Roman sources report Gordian was murdered by his frustrated army after the defeat (with the role of Philip unknown).
RS111592. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 1, RSC IV 86, Hunter III 6, SRCV III 8609, Choice VF, well centered, toned, flow lines, weight 3.334 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 1st issue, 29 Jul 238 - end July 239 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right; reverse FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing slightly left, head left, standard in right hand, transverse scepter in left; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 124 (8 Jan 2023), lot 986 (part of); first specimen of this type handled by FORVM; scarce; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

|Valerian| |I|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.||sestertius|NEW
Felicitas was the goddess or personification of happiness, good fortune, and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RB111214. Orichalcum sestertius, Gbl MIR 73h, RIC V-1 157, SRCV III 10011, Cohen V 58 var. (draped), Hunter IV - (p. xxxv), aVF, light green patina, deposits, weight 12.928 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 2nd emission, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITAS AVGG (the good fortune of the two emperors), Felicitas standing left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; ex Aphrodite Art Coins (Wiesbaden, Germany) auction VI (22 Oct 2022), lot 788; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Nisibis, Mesopotamia

|Mesopotamia| |&| |Babylonia|, |Philip| |I| |the| |Arab,| |February| |244| |-| |End| |of| |September| |249| |A.D.,| |Nisibis,| |Mesopotamia||AE| |26|NEW
Nisibis is the city of Netzivin in the Talmud. The Jews of Nisibis resisted the Roman conqueror, Trajan, to maintain Parthian rule. The city was taken only after a lengthy siege. After the it fell, Nisibis was laid waste and the massacre was so great that the houses, streets, and roads were strewn with corpses.
RP111193. Bronze AE 26, RPC Online VIII U2879 (12 spec.); BMC Mesopotamia p. 123, 21; SNG Cop 240; SNG Hunterian -, VF, attractive, broad flan, porous, minor flan flaws, weight 14.559 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Nisibis (Nusaybin, Turkey) mint, 247 - 249 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, radiate and cuirassed bust of Philip I left, seen from front, wearing balteus; reverse IOY CEΠ KOΛΩ NECIBI MHT (MH ligate), temple with arched pediment and four twisted columns enclosing draped, veiled and turreted Tyche seated facing, wearing veil, chiton and mantle, ram leaping right above her, half figure of river god swimming right below; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00


Otacilia Severa, Augusta, February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D., Nisibis, Mesopotamia

|Mesopotamia| |&| |Babylonia|, |Otacilia| |Severa,| |Augusta,| |February| |or| |March| |244| |-| |September| |or| |October| |249| |A.D.,| |Nisibis,| |Mesopotamia||AE| |26|NEW
Nisibis is the city of Netzivin in the Talmud. The Jews of Nisibis resisted the Roman conqueror, Trajan, to maintain Parthian rule. The city was taken only after a lengthy siege. After the it fell, Nisibis was laid waste and the massacre was so great that the houses, streets, and roads were strewn with corpses.
RP111194. Bronze AE 26, RPC Online VIII U2575 (12 spec.); BMC Mesopotamia p. 123, 27; SNG Cop 244; SNG Hunterian 2447, VF, broad flan, porosity, light corrosion, weight 8.049 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Nisibis (Nusaybin, Turkey) mint, 247 - 249 A.D.; obverse MAP ΩTAKIΛ CEOYHPAN CEB (Marcia Otacilia Severa Augusta), diademed and draped bust of Otacilia Severa right, crescent behind shoulders; reverse IOY CEΠ KOΛΩ NECIBI MHT, temple with arched pediment and four twisted columns enclosing draped, veiled and turreted Tyche seated facing, wearing veil, chiton and mantle, ram leaping right above her, half figure of river god swimming right below; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $9999.00 SALE PRICE $8999.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
 
RA110697. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 368a, RIC V-1 S280 (S), RSC IV 961a, SRCV III 10359, Hunter IV S77, aF, green patina, flan flaw, flan crack, weight 2.572 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse VICT GAL AVG, three Victories (the Three Gallic Provinces) standing facing, each with head left, raising wreath in right hand, and holding palm frond in left hand; ex Savoca Numismatik auction 104 (30 May 2021), lot 336; rare; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00











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