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Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire

Otacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

|Otacilia| |Severa|, |Otacilia| |Severa,| |Augusta| |February| |or| |March| |244| |-| |September| |or| |October| |249| |A.D.|, antoninianus
Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RS93265. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 130, RSC IV 43, Hunter III 8, SRCV III 9158, Choice VF, full legends centering, flow lines, toned, small green encrustations, light marks, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.540 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust right set on crescent; reverse PIETAS AVGVSTAE (piety of the Emperess), Pietas standing half left, veiled head left, extending right hand, box of incense in left hand; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00


Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D.

|Maximinus| |I|, |Maximinus| |I| |Thrax,| |20| |March| |235| |-| |Late| |May| |238| |A.D.|, sestertius
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RB92613. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 81, BMCRE VI 148, Cohen IV 38, Banti 12, SRCV III 8332, Hunter III 49, F, well centered on a slightly oval flan, light deposits, light, marks, porosity,, weight 21.500 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 236 - 237 A.D.; obverse MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax standing half left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across the field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, antoninianus
This coin was issued to gain the support of Fortuna toward ensuring the safe return of Gordian from his campaign against the Persians. But Fortuna was not inspired. Gordian would never return to Rome. Shapur's inscription at Naqsh-i Rustam claims he was killed in a Roman defeat at the Battle of Misiche near modern Fallujah. Roman sources do not mention this defeat and claim Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, murdered him.
RS92616. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 143, RSC IV 97, SRCV III 8612, Hunter III - (p. lxxxv), VF, old collection toning, flow lines, small deposits, scratches and marks, flan ragged with edge splits, reverse a little off center, weight 3.982 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 242 - 244 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FORT REDVX, Fortuna seated left, rudder held by tiller in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, wheel below seat; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $45.00 SALE |PRICE| $40.50


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, antoninianus
In 241, Tranquillina's father was appointed the head of the Praetorian Guard. In May that year, Gordian married Tranquillina and she received the honorific title of Augusta. Her marriage to Gordian was an admission by the young emperor of the political indispensability of Timesitheus. Tranquillina survived her husband. She had no sons with him but they may have had a daughter born after Gordian's death. In 243, Timesitheus, Gordian's father-in-law and praetorian prefect became ill and died under suspicious circumstances. Gordian III appointed Philip the Arab as his new praetorian prefect.
RS92617. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 93, RSC IV 266, Hunter III 39, SRCV III 8650, VF/F, well centered, toned, flow lines, bumps and marks, die wear, weight 5.005 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 241 - 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P V COS II P P, Emperor standing right, wearing military garb, transverse spear in right hand, globe in left hand; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, antoninianus
Gordian III was the grandson of Gordian I and nephew of Gordian II. Made Caesar before the murders of Balbinus and Pupienus, he succeeded them. Little is known of his reign. In 242 A.D. he attacked Persia, gaining Mesopotamia. He died shortly after, through illness or plot of his Praetorian prefect and successor, Philip I.
RS92619. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 155 (S), RSC IV 349, SRCV III 8662, Hunter III 67, Choice aVF, well centered, flow lines, toned, die wear, weight 4.398 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 243 - 244 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VICTOR AETER (eternal victory), Victory standing left, resting right hand on shield on ground, palm frond in left, captive seated left at feet left; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |I|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, antoninianus
Felicitas was the goddess or personification of happiness, good fortune, and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RS92620. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 142, RSC IV 81, Hunter III 49, SRCV III 8608, Choice gVF, well centered, nice portrait, old collection toning, flow lines, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.390 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 243 - 244 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse FELICITAS TEMPORVM (happy times), Felicitas standing facing, head left, long caduceus vertical in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |I|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, sestertius
In 243, Timesitheus, Gordian's father-in-law and praetorian prefect became ill and died under suspicious circumstances. Gordian III appointed Philip the Arab as his new praetorian prefect.
RB92621. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 304a, Hunter III 120, Cohen V 273, cf. SRCV III 8732 (TR P V), aVF, well centered on a tight flan, bumps, edge crack, weight 18.115 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 4th issue, 242 - 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P VI COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, laurel-branch in right hand, left forearm resting on lyre on back of his seat, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, sestertius
In 241 Timesitheus was appointed the head of the Praetorian Guard, Gordian married his daughter Tranquillina, and she received the honorific title of Augusta. The marriage indicates Gordian correctly understood that Timesitheus was indispensable. Timesitheus died under suspicious circumstances in 243. Not long after losing his protector, Gordian was murdered by mutinous soldiers in February 244.
RB92623. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 306a, Cohen V 254, Hunter III 114, SRCV III 8731, VF, well centered, attractive style, part of reverse legend weak, slight double strike, some porosity, edge flaw, edge cracks, weight 22.690 g, maximum diameter 32.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 241 - 242 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P IIII COS II P P (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for 4 years, consul 2 times, father of the country), Gordian standing right, wearing military garb, transverse spear in right hand, globe in extended left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, sestertius
To the ancient Romans, Rome was "Roma Aeterna" (The Eternal City) and "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). The empire is history but Rome is still today, the eternal city. Rome's influence on Western Civilization can hardly be overestimated; perhaps a greater influence than any other city on earth, making important contributions to politics, literature, culture, the arts, architecture, music, religion, education, fashion, cinema and cuisine.
RB92624. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV-1 RIC 272a, Cohen V 316, Hunter III 91, SRCV III 8736, gVF, excellent portrait, green patina, tight slightly irregularly shaped flan, slight double strike, spots of light corrosion, light marks, weight 18.352 g, maximum diameter 30.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 240 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE (to eternal Rome), Roma seated left on shield (throne back also visible in background) holding Victory on globe and scepter, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $170.00 SALE |PRICE| $153.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, sestertius
The propaganda on Roman coins was often far from reality. There was little security for Rome when this coin was struck. In 238, Goths from Ukraine crossed the Danube and devastated the Roman Empire up to the border with Anatolia. In 240, Africa revolted. Also in 240, Franks from northwest Germania raided the Rhine frontier. In 242, the cities of the Cimmerian Bosporus were evacuated because Goths controlled the territory.
RB92625. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 312, Cohen V 332, SRCV III 8739, Hunter III 154, VF, well centered and struck, squared flan, a little rough from light corrosion, tiny edge cracks, weight 17.898 g, maximum diameter 31.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 241 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SECVRITAS AVG (security of the Emperor), Securitas seated left, scepter in right hand, propping head with left hand, altar at feet on left, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00











Catalog current as of Friday, February 21, 2020.
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Crisis and Decline