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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Crisis & Decline||View Options:  |  |  | 

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire
Trajan Decius, September 249 - June or July 251 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria

|Antioch|, |Trajan| |Decius,| |September| |249| |-| |June| |or| |July| |251| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Seleucis| |and| |Pieria,| |Syria||tetradrachm|NEW
In 256 A.D., about six years after this coin was struck, the Persian King Shapur conquered and plundered Antioch.
RY94930. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 1120(b) (rare); Prieur 538 (10 spec.); Dura Coins 494; RPC Online IX 1634 (6 spec.); BMC Galatia p. 220, 580, VF, full border centering, flow lines, minor encrustation, uneven toning, slight porosity, weight 11.412 g, maximum diameter 26.9 mm, die axis 225o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Sep 249 - Jun/Jul 251 A.D.; obverse AVT K Γ ME KY ∆EKIOC TPAIANOC CEB, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind, below bust; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC (holder of Tribunitian power), eagle standing left on palm branch, head left, wings spread, wreath in beak, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria, Syria

|Antioch|, |Philip| |II,| |July| |or| |August| |247| |-| |Late| |249| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Seleukis| |and| |Pieria,| |Syria||tetradrachm|NEW
The ruins of Antioch on the Orontes lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch is called "the cradle of Christianity," for the pivotal early role it played in the emergence of the faith. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Once a great metropolis of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east.6th Century Antioch
RY94953. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 1043; RPC Online VIII U28990; Prieur 473; BMC Galatia p. 218, 559; SNG Cop 268; SNG Fitzwilliam 5912; SNG Hunterian II 3073, VF, lightly toned, porous, slight doubling of the reverse legend, small areas of corrosion on edge, weight 10.438 g, maximum diameter 28.3 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 248 A.D.; obverse AVTOK K M IOVΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC YΠA TO ∆ (holder of Tribunitian power, consul for the 4th time), eagle standing left, wings open, head left, wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA over S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Alexandria Troas, Troas

|Troas|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Alexandria| |Troas,| |Troas||AE| |21|NEW
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul) is on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of the west coast of Anatolia, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). The city was founded by Antigonus around 310 B.C. with the name Antigoneia and was populated with the inhabitants of Cebren, Colone, Hamaxitus, Neandria, and Scepsis. About 301 B.C., Lysimachus improved the city and re-named it Alexandreia. Among the few structure ruins remaining today are a bath, an odeon, a theater and gymnasium complex and a stadium. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.
RP97240. Bronze AE 21, SNG Cop 190; Bellinger Troy A439; SNG Canakkale 410 var. (obv. leg); SNGvA 7572 var. (legends); BMC Troas p. 30, 164 var. (legends, bust), gVF, bare toned bronze, flow lines, a little off center, scattered porosity, weight 4.139 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Oct 253 - c. Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP LIC VALERIA, laureate, draped, and bearded bust right, seen from behind; reverse CO AVG TRO, eagle flying right, bull forepart right in its talons; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00


Herennius Etruscus, Early 251 - First Half of June 251 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria

|Antioch|, |Herennius| |Etruscus,| |Early| |251| |-| |First| |Half| |of| |June| |251| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Seleucis| |and| |Pieria,| |Syria||tetradrachm|NEW
In 250 the Plague of Cyprian, a pandemic probably smallpox, began. It was still raging in 270 when it claimed the life of emperor Claudius II Gothicus. At the height of the outbreak, 5,000 people a day were said to be dying in Rome. The plague caused widespread manpower shortages in agriculture and the Roman army.
RY97763. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 1153b (scarce), RPC Online IX 1715 (11 spec.), Prieur 630, Dura Coins 552, BMC Galatia 614 var. (5th officina), VF, slightly rough, weight 12.615 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 250 - early 251; obverse EPENN ETPOV ME KV ∆EKIOC KECAP, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind, two dots (2nd officina) below; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC (holder of Tribunitian power), eagle standing left on palm frond, wings open, head right, tail left, wreath in beak, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; scarce; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Nisibis, Mesopotamia

|Mesopotamia| |&| |Babylonia|, |Philip| |I| |the| |Arab,| |February| |244| |-| |End| |of| |September| |249| |A.D.,| |Nisibis,| |Mesopotamia||AE| |25|NEW
Nisibis is the city of Netzivin in the Talmud. The Jews of Nisibis resisted the Roman conqueror, Trajan, to maintain Parthian rule. The city was taken only after a lengthy siege. After the it fell, Nisibis was laid waste and the massacre was so great that the houses, streets, and roads were strewn with corpses.
RY93159. Bronze AE 25, RPC Online VIII U2787; SNG Cop 242; SNG Hunterian 2446; BMC Arabia p. 122, 17; Lindgren-Kovacs 2603; McClean 9557, aVF, full legends, light earthen deposits, cleaning scratches, tiny flan flaw above head on obv., weight 8.360 g, maximum diameter 25.1 mm, die axis 0o, Nisibis (Nusaybin, Turkey) mint, A.D. 247 - 249; obverse AYTOK K M IOUΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse IOY CEΠ KOΛΩ NECIBI MHT, tetrastyle temple with twisted columns; within arched central bay: statue of Tyche seated facing, ram (sign of Ares) leaping right with head turned back left above, river-god swimming right below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00


Gordian III and Tranquillina, May 241 - 25 February 244 A.D., Singara, Mesopotamia

|Mesopotamia| |&| |Babylonia|, |Gordian| |III| |and| |Tranquillina,| |May| |241| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.,| |Singara,| |Mesopotamia||AE| |33|NEW
In 242 A.D., Gordian III, along with his praetorian prefect and father-in-law Timesitheus, began a campaign against the Sasanian king, Shahpur I. After freeing Syria, a decisive battle secured all of Mesopotamia, including Singara and Nisibis. But after Timesitheus died in 243 the Roman advance stalled and they suffered a major defeat. In February 244, Gordian died and Philip was proclaimed emperor. Philip negotiated a truce in order to return to Rome for his Senate confirmation.
RY93161. Bronze AE 33, SNG Cop 257; SNG Righetti 2646; BMC Arabia p. 135, 8 - 13; Lindgren-Kovacs 2627, VF, well centered, porous, deposits on reverse, weight 24.340 g, maximum diameter 33.2 mm, die axis 0o, Singara (Sinjar, Iraq) mint, 243 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse AVTOK K M ANT ΓOP∆IANON CAB TPANKVΛΛINA CEB, confronted busts of Gordian on left, laureate, draped, and cuirassed, and Tranquillina on right, draped and wearing stephane; reverse AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA (Aurelia Septimia Colonia Singara), Tyche seated left on rock, wearing turreted crown, veil, mantle, and chiton, branch in right hand, left hand on rocks behind, half-length figure of river-god Mygdonius swimming left at her feet, Centaur Sagittarius shooting arrow left above; from the Errett Bishop Collection, big 33mm bronze!; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria

|Antioch|, |Philip| |I| |the| |Arab,| |February| |244| |-| |End| |of| |September| |249| |A.D.,| |Antioch,| |Seleucis| |and| |Pieria,| |Syria||tetradrachm|NEW
In 248, Trajan Decius put down the revolts of Pacatianus in Moesia and Iotapianus in Syria, by order of Emperor Philip. In 249, after his legionaries proclaimed him emperor, Trajan Decius marched them to Verona, where he defeated and killed Philip.
RY93146. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 934; Prieur 445; Dura Coins 427; BMC Galatia p. 214, 518; SNG Cop 269, VF, excellent portrait, dark brown and bronze tone, scratches, weight 11.324 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 248 - 249 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC YΠATO ∆ (holder of Tribunitian power, consul for the 4th time), eagle standing right, wings open, head right, wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA S C in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |I|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Emperor, etc. The legend GENIO POP ROM dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Roman People.
RL94880. Billon follis, RIC VI Roma 294b, SRCV IV 14859A, Cohen VII 89, Hunter V -, VF/F, desert patina, a little off center on a broad flan, reverse weak and uneven, scratches, weight 3.655 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 312 - 313 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (to the guardian spirit of the Roman People), Genius standing slightly left, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, R[...] in exergue; RIC VI lists as common but this is the first specimen of this type handled by FORVM; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.||sestertius|
Victory or Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Victory or Nike is also one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek and Roman coins.
RB97216. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 337a, Cohen V 351, SRCV III 8741, Hunter III 155, Choice F, well centered, dark green patina, light earthen deposits, light scratches, edge cracks, weight 21.274 g, maximum diameter 30.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 241 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AETER (eternal victory), Victory standing half left, head left, shield in right hand resting on captive seated left at feet on left, palm frond in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field below center; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00


Trajan Decius, September 249 - June or July 251 A.D.

|Trajan| |Decius|, |Trajan| |Decius,| |September| |249| |-| |June| |or| |July| |251| |A.D.||sestertius|
In 249, Trajan Decius put down a revolt in Moesia and Pannonia. After his legionaries proclaimed him emperor, he marched them to Verona, where he defeated and killed Philip the Arab
RB97218. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 124a (S), Banti 22, Hunter III 54, Cohen V 87, SRCV III 9407, VF, green patina, well centered on a tight flan, old bump on nose, weight 15.768 g, maximum diameter 26.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Jul 249 - Jun or Jul 251 A.D.; obverse IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate, cuirassed, slight drapery on far shoulder, bust right; reverse PANNONIAE, the two Pannoniae standing facing, looking away from each other, each holding a standard, S - C (senatus consulto) across fields; $200.00 SALE |PRICE| $180.00











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