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Hadrian, one of the "Five Good Emperors," abandoned the expansionist policy of Trajan and established a policy of defense and consolidation during which Hadrian's Wall in Britain was constructed. He traveled to nearly every province of the Empire, more than any other emperor, often ordering grandiose building programs to improve infrastructure and the quality of life in those regions. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He spent much of his time with the military; usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. He suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina.
NEW Justitia is the Roman goddess or personification of justice. She was not depicted on many Roman coin types. Perhaps this coin would make a nice gift for a lawyer or judge!RS94579. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 19 (R2); RSC II 875a; BMCRE III p. 238, 12; Hunter II 14; Strack II 5; SRCV II -, F, nice portrait, toned, tight flan, marks, tiny edge crack, weight 3.376 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 11 Aug - Dec 117 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC, laureate bust right, bare chest (heroic bust), trace of drapery on far shoulder, balteus strap on right shoulder; reverse PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P, Justitia seated left on throne, patera in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, IVSTITIA in exergue; very rare; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
NEW Annona was worshiped in Rome as the goddess who prospered the year's supply of grain. She was represented on an altar in the capital. The three principal granaries of Rome were Sicily, Egypt, and the African provinces. Annona civilis was the grain which purchased each year by the Roman state, then imported and put into storage, reserved and distributed for the subsistence of the people. Annona militaris was grain appropriated to the use of an army during a campaign.RB95900. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC II-3 742; BMCRE III 1334A; Strack II 588; cf. SRCV II 3675 (similar but Annona right); Cohen II 176 (perhaps this coin); Hunter II -, aVF, well centered, rough corrosion, weight 10.531 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 124 - 127 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, radiate bust right, chest bare, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, Annona seated left, attendant stands before her helping to draw out a a cloth full of bread loaves(?), stern of ship in the background on right, S - C (Senatus Consulto) across field, ANNONA AVG in exergue; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
NEW In 132, a messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba started the Bar Kokhba revolt, a war of liberation for Judea against Rome. At first the rebellion was a success. The legion X Fretensis was forced to retreat from Jerusalem to Caesarea. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, was destroyed. The Jews re-established their sacrifices and struck coins to celebrate their independence. The rebellion would last for only 30 months. By 135, the Romans had recaptured Jerusalem, Simon bar Kokhba was dead, and the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. Jerusalem was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina and an altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple. The Jews remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.
RB95834. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II-3 1291, BMCRE III 1400, Strack II 837, Hunter II 473, SRCV II 3596, Fair, pitting, weight 22.403 g, maximum diameter 33.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 129 - 130 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITATI AVG (above around edge), galley rowed left over waves, six oarsmen, steersman under an arched shelter at the stern, vexillum on prow, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking ship, COS III P P in exergue; ex Dan Clark (c. 1990); $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00
NEW Spes was the Roman personification of Hope (the Greek equivalent was Elpis). According the Hesiod's famous story, Elpis was the last to escape the Pandora's box. It can be debated whether she was really about "hope" as we understand it, or rather mere "expectation." In art Spes is normally depicted carrying flowers or a cornucopia, but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right, while the left is raising a fold of her dress. She was also named "ultima dea" - the last resort of men.RS94590. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 2360, RSC II 1411, BMCRE III 733, Strack II 272, Hunter II 244, SRCV II 3542, Choice aVF/F, nice portrait, well centered, flow lines, reverse die wear, edge cracks, weight 2.944 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 137 - 138 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right; reverse SPES P R (Spes Populi Romani - the hope of the Roman people), Spes standing left, flower in right hand, raising skirt with left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
NEW Fortuna Redux, one of the many aspects of Fortuna, was in charge of bringing people home safely, primarily from wars - redux means "coming back" or "returning." She may be one of the later aspects of Fortuna, as the earliest mention of her is on an altar dedicated by the Senate in 19 B.C. for the safe return of Emperor Augustus.RS94592. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 114, RSC II 745, BMCRE III 69, Strack II 35, Hunter II 27 var. (drapery on both shoulders), SRCV II 3493 var. (aegis on left shoulder), F, centered, bumps, scratches, porosity, edge splits/cracks, weight 3.515 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 118 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder; reverse P M TR P COS II, Fortuna seated left on low seat without back, holding rudder by tiller in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, FORT RED in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
NEW Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.RS94583. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 198, RIC II 139, BMCRE III 320, RSC II 1353, Hunter II 118, Strack II 79, SRCV II 3539 var. (SAL AVG), F, light toning, a bit rough and porous, tiny edge crack, weight 3.316 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 119 - 120 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, bare chest with drapery on far shoulder (heroic bust); reverse P M TR P COS III, Salus seated left, from patera in right hand, feeding snake rising from altar before her, resting left elbow on on back of chair, SALVS AVG (to the health of the Emperor) in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00
NEW In 122, Hadrian gave up the conquered territories in Scotland. During a personal visit to the area, Hadrian ordered construction of a 73 mile (117-kilometer) long wall to mark the northern border and keep the Caledonians, Picts and other tribes at bay. Construction of Hadrian's Wall began on 13 September.RS94585. Silver denarius, RSC II 1162c, Hunter II 86, BMCRE III 237 note, Strack II 84, RIC II-3 567, SRCV II 3528 var. (draped), F, nice portrait, radiating flow lines, toning, some porosity, weight 3.031 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, late 121 - 123 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right from behind; reverse P M TR P COS III, Hadrian standing slightly left, bare head left, wearing military garb, rudder on globe held by tiller in right hand, inverted spear vertical in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
NEW In 122, Hadrian gave up the conquered territories in Scotland. During a personal visit to the area, Hadrian ordered construction of a 73 mile (117-kilometer) long wall to mark the northern border and keep the Caledonians, Picts and other tribes at bay. Construction of Hadrian's Wall began on 13 September.RS94586. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 497, RSC II 212b, BMCRE III 252, Hunter II 91, Strack II 60, SRCV II 3463, aVF, light toning, flow lines, reverse a little off center, small edge split/cracks, weight 3.237 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 150o, Rome mint, late 121 - 123 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P COS III, Clementia (mercy) standing left, leaning on column, patera in right hand held over altar, long scepter vertical in left hand, left elbow rests on column, CLEM in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
NEW In 135, Simon bar Kokhba was killed in Betar, a fortress where he had taken refuge. Resistance continued in Galilee. The Jewish diaspora began as Emperor Hadrian barred Jews from Jerusalem and had survivors of the massacre dispersed across the Roman Empire. Many were sold into slavery. Jerusalem, largely destroyed, was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina. Legio VI Ferrata rebuilt the legionary fortress in the city and constructed a Roman temple at Golgotha. An altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem.RS94588. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 2199, RSC II 717, BMCRE III 629, Hunter 209, Strack II 237, SRCV II 3492, F, light toning, flow lines, porosity, edge cracks, reverse off center, weight 3.264 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 136 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right; reverse FIDES PVBLICA (loyalty of the public), Fides standing facing, head right, grain ears downward at side in right hand, raising plate of fruit to shoulder height in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
NEW Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Coins dedicated to Salus Augusti, like this coin, probably indicate the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.RS94589. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 2048, RSC II 1335, BMCRE III 715, RIC II 267, Strack II 264, Hunter II 240, SRCV II 3540 var. (slight drapery), F, flow lines, porosity, edge splits/cracks, weight 2.966 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 133 - 135 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare bust right; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing right, from patera in left hand, feeding snake coiled around and rising from altar before her; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
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