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Ancient Coins of Syria
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus III the Great, 223 - 187 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Antiochus| |III| |the| |Great,| |223| |-| |187| |B.C.||drachm|
At the age of eighteen, Antiochus III inherited a disorganized state. Much of Anatolia had been lost and the easternmost provinces had revolted and broken away. After some initial defeats, Antiochus took Judaea from Ptolemaic Egypt and then conquered Anatolia, earning him the epithet "the Great." In 192 B.C. Antiochus invaded Greece with a 10,000-man army, and was elected the commander in chief of the Aetolian League. In 191 B.C., however, the Romans routed him at Thermopylae, forcing him to withdraw to Anatolia. The Romans followed up by invading Anatolia and defeating him again. By the Treaty of Apamea 188 B.C., Antiochus abandoned all territory north and west of the Taurus, most of which the Roman Republic gave either to Rhodes or to the Attalid ruler Eumenes II, its allies. Many Greek cities were left free. As a consequence of this blow to the Seleucid power, the provinces which had recovered by Antiochus, reasserted their independence. Antiochus mounted a fresh eastern expedition. He died while pillaging a temple of Bel at Elymas, Persia, in 187 B.C.

Apamea was the home base of the Seleucid elephant corps.
GS99753. Silver drachm, Houghton-Lorber I 1065(4), Houghton CSE 1188, Newell ESM 631 var. (control), SNG Spaer 692 var. (same); HGC 9 453a (perhaps Apameia on the Axios, S), aVF, very high sculptural relief portrait, iridescent toning, corrosion, scratches, tiny edge chip, weight 3.604 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 0o, Apamea on the Orontes (Syria) mint, c. 204 - 197 B.C.; obverse Antiochos diademed head right; reverse elephant walking right, M (control) upper right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ (king) above, ANTIOXOY in exergue; ex Jesus Vico auction 161 (21 Apr 2022), lot 160 (part of); scarce; $180.00 (171.00)


Lucius Verus, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D., Antiocheia ad Hippum, Decapolis, Syria Palestina

|Decapolis,| |Arabia| |&| |Syria|, |Lucius| |Verus,| |7| |March| |161| |-| |February| |169| |A.D.,| |Antiocheia| |ad| |Hippum,| |Decapolis,| |Syria| |Palestina||AE| |23|
Hippos is an archaeological site located on a hill overlooking the Sea of Galilee in the Mt. Sussita National Park, Israel. Between the 3rd century B.C. and the 7th century A.D., Hippos was the site of a Greco-Roman city, which declined under Muslim rule and was abandoned after an earthquake in 749. Besides the fortified city itself, Hippos controlled two port facilities on the lake and an area of the surrounding countryside. Hippos was part of the Decapolis, or Ten Cities, a region in Roman Jordan, Syria and Israel that were culturally tied more closely to Greece and Rome than to the Semitic ethnoi around.
RY99699. Bronze AE 23, RPC IV.3 T6574 (6 spec.), Spijkerman 17, Sofaer 19, SNG ANS 1142 var. (bust, dated), VF, dark green patina, scratches, a little rough, light earthen deposits, weight 8.594 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, Hippos (Mt. Sussita National Park) mint, 7 Mar 161 - Feb 169 A.D.; obverse AYT KAICAP Λ AYP OYHPOC, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse ANT ΠP IΠ IEP ACYΛ, Tyche standing slightly left, head left, kalathos on head, small horse in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $100.00 (95.00)


Seleukid Kingdom, Diodotus Tryphon, 142 - 138 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Diodotus| |Tryphon,| |142| |-| |138| |B.C.||AE| |18|
Tryphon, a general, betrayed and deposed the child king Antiochus VI and seized power for himself in Coele-Syria. He reinstated Hasmonean rule in Judea in exchange for which Jewish armies under the High Priest Jonathan marched against his rival Demetrius. But Tryphon betrayed Jonathan taking him prisoner at a "friendly" meeting and marching his army to Judaea. Jonathan's brother, Simon Maccabaeus, was ready for battle, preventing invasion. Tryphon promised to free Jonathan in exchange for one hundred talents and Jonathan's two sons as hostages. Simon did not trust Tryphon, but he complied so he could not be accused of his brother's death. As expected, Jonathan was executed.Tryphon committed suicide after he was defeated by Antiochus VII.
GY98893. Bronze AE 18, Houghton-Lorber II 2034(2)a, SNG Spaer 1835, Babelon Rois 1051, HGC 9 1061 (S), aVF, brown patina, central cavities, scattered tiny pitting, weight 5.626 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 142 - 138 B.C.; obverse diademed head right, diadem ends falling straight behind; reverse spiked Macedonian helmet left, with cheek guards, adorned with a wild goat's horn above the visor, aphlaston (control) left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ / TPYΦΩNOΣ in two downward lines on the right, AYTOKPATOPOΣ downward on left; $80.00 (76.00)


Seleukid Kingdom, Diodotus Tryphon, 142 - 138 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Diodotus| |Tryphon,| |142| |-| |138| |B.C.||AE| |18|
Tryphon, a general, betrayed and deposed the child king Antiochus VI and seized power for himself in Coele-Syria. He reinstated Hasmonean rule in Judea in exchange for which Jewish armies under the High Priest Jonathan marched against his rival Demetrius. But Tryphon betrayed Jonathan taking him prisoner at a "friendly" meeting and marching his army to Judaea. Jonathan's brother, Simon Maccabaeus, was ready for battle, preventing invasion. Tryphon promised to free Jonathan in exchange for one hundred talents and Jonathan's two sons as hostages. Simon did not trust Tryphon, but he complied so he could not be accused of his brother's death. As expected, Jonathan was executed.Tryphon committed suicide after he was defeated by Antiochus VII.
GY98894. Bronze AE 18, Houghton-Lorber II 2034(2)e, SNG Spaer 1830, Babelon Rois 1052, Houghton CSE 261, HGC 9 1061 (S), VF/F, dark green patina, central cavities, weight 4.842 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 142 - 138 B.C.; obverse diademed head right, diadem ends falling straight behind; reverse spiked Macedonian helmet left, with cheek guards, adorned with a wild goat's horn above the visor, star (control) left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ / TPYΦΩNOΣ in two downward lines on the right, AYTOKPATOPOΣ downward on left; $90.00 (85.50)


Seleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 152 - 145 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Alexander| |I| |Balas,| |152| |-| |145| |B.C.||AE| |22|
Alexander Balas, of humble origin, claimed to be Antiochus IV's son and heir to the Seleukid throne. Rome and Egypt accepted his claims. He married Cleopatra Thea, daughter of King Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt. With his father-in-law's help, he defeated Demetrius Soter and became the Seleukid king. After he abandoned himself to debauchery, his father-in-law shifted his support to Demetrius II, the son of Demetrius Soter. Balas was defeated and fled to Nabataea where he was murdered.
GY99020. Bronze serrated AE 22, Houghton-Lorber II 1793(3)d; BMC Seleucid p. 55, 37; SNG Spaer 1438 var. (controls); SNG Cop 258 var. (same); HGC 9 900 (R1), gF, dark green patina, obv. off center, light deposits, areas of light corrosion, edge split, weight 6.909 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 30o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 152 - 145 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander I right; reverse Athena standing left, helmeted and draped, Nike in right hand offering wreath, resting left hand on grounded shield, spear leaning against left arm, BAΣIΛEΩΣ downward on left, AΛEΞAN∆POY downward on right, KA monogram over Πo monogram (controls) inner left; $80.00 (76.00)


Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Samosata, Commagene, Syria

|Roman| |Syria|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |117| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.,| |Samosata,| |Commagene,| |Syria||AE| |21|
Samosata, meaning "sun," was an ancient city whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the Atatrk Dam. -- wikipedia.org
RP99004. Bronze AE 21, RPC III 3419; SNG Hunt 2590; SNG Munchen 376; SNG Cop Cyprus 17; Butcher p. 470, 12; BMC Galatia p. 118, 22, gVF, dark patina, uneven strike with flat areas, part of edge ragged, light earthen deposits, weight 5.450 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, Samosata (site now flooded by the Atatrk Dam) mint, c. 132 - 133 A.D.; obverse A∆PIANOC CEBACTOC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear; reverse ΦΛA / CAMO / MHTPO / KOM (Flavia Samosata Metropolis Commagene), inscription in four lines within oak wreath; $95.00 (90.25)


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 175 - 164 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Antiochus| |IV| |Epiphanes,| |175| |-| |164| |B.C.||AE| |36|
From the extraordinary "Egyptianizing" coinage of Antiochus IV, celebrating his triumph over the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt by using a reverse type strongly associated with the Lagid dynasty, an eagle perched on a thunderbolt.

The villain of Hanukkah. Antiochos IV assumed divine epithets, which no other Hellenistic king had done, such as Theos Epiphanes (God Manifest). His subjects made a pun on his name, calling him Epimanes (madman). In 168 B.C., Antiochus IV ordered the Jews to worship Greek gods. The Temple in Jerusalem was seized and dedicated to Zeus. The Jews revolted and after three years of fighting, Judah Maccabee defeated the Seleukid army. Hanukkah, the Festival of Lights, commemorates the rededication of the Temple in 165 B.C. According to the Talmud, there was only enough consecrated olive oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days, enough time to prepare and consecrate fresh oil.
GY98882. Bronze AE 36, Houghton-Lorber II 1413; SNG Spaer 979; Newell SMA 59; BMC Seleucid p. 38, 42; Houghton CSE 118; Svoronos 1416; HGC 9 643 (S-R1), aF, rough, central cavities, obverse edge beveled, weight 32.540 g, maximum diameter 35.5 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, autumn 169 - autumn 168 B.C.; obverse laureate and diademed head of Serapis right, taenia diadem with Osiris cap at peak; reverse eagle standing right on thunderbolt, wings closed, head right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY in two downward lines on the right, ΘEOY EΠIΦANOYΣ in two downward lines on the left; big 36mm bronze!; scarce; $110.00 (104.50)


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VI Dionysus, 144 - c. 142 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Antiochus| |VI| |Dionysus,| |144| |-| |c.| |142| |B.C.||AE| |24|
After his father was deposed by Demetrius II, the general Diodotus Tryphon nominated Antiochus VI as king. He gained the allegiance of most of the Seleucid domain, including Judaea, but was actually only a puppet of the general. He died after "ruling" for two years. He was likely assassinated under orders from Tryphon, who then made himself king.
GY98888. Bronze serrated AE 24, Houghton-Lorber II 2006(a), SNG Spaer 1772, Houghton CSE 248, Babelon Rois 1007, SNG Cop 306, HGC 9 1043 (C-S), gF, green patina, obv. off center, earthen deposits, central dimples, weight 7.178 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 45o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. mid-143 - 142 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Antiochos VI right, wreathed in ivy; reverse elephant walking left, holding torch in trunk, BAΣIΛEΩS ANTIOXOY in two lines above, EΠIΦANOYΣ ∆IONYΣOY in two lines in exergue, ΣTA over cornucopia (controls) right; $80.00 (76.00)


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VI Dionysus, 144 - c. 142 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Antiochus| |VI| |Dionysus,| |144| |-| |c.| |142| |B.C.||AE| |22|
After his father was deposed by Demetrius II, the general Diodotus Tryphon nominated Antiochus VI as king. He gained the allegiance of most of the Seleucid domain, including Judaea, but was actually only a puppet of the general. He died after "ruling" for two years. He was likely assassinated under orders from Tryphon, who then made himself king.
GY98889. Bronze serrated AE 22, Houghton-Lorber II 2006(c), SNG Spaer 1774, Houghton CSE 249, Babelon Rois 1011, SNG Cop 304, HGC 9 1043 (C-S), gF, green patina, earthen deposits, central dimples, weight 7.348 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. mid-143 - 142 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Antiochos VI right, wreathed in ivy; reverse elephant walking left, holding torch in trunk, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY in two lines above, EΠIΦANOYΣ ∆IONYΣOY in two lines in exergue, ΣTA over star (controls) to the right; $80.00 (76.00)


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VI Dionysus, 144 - c. 142 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Seleukid| |Kingdom,| |Antiochus| |VI| |Dionysus,| |144| |-| |c.| |142| |B.C.||AE| |22|
After his father was deposed by Demetrius II, the general Diodotus Tryphon nominated Antiochus VI as king. He gained the allegiance of most of the Seleucid domain, including Judaea, but was actually only a puppet of the general. He died after "ruling" for two years. He was likely assassinated under orders from Tryphon, who then made himself king.
GY98891. Bronze serrated AE 22, Houghton-Lorber II 2006(a), SNG Spaer 1772, Houghton CSE 248, Babelon Rois 1007, SNG Cop 306, HGC 9 1043 (C-S), aF, dark green patina, light earthen deposits, porous, central dimples, weight 6.599 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 30o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. mid-143 - 142 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Antiochos VI right, wreathed in ivy; reverse elephant walking left, holding torch in trunk, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY in two lines above, EΠIΦANOYΣ ∆IONYΣOY in two lines in exergue, ΣTA over cornucopia (controls) to the right; $70.00 (66.50)










REFERENCES|

American Numismatic Society Collections Database - http://numismatics.org/search/search.
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